Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows.
ABSTRACT Four multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to investigate the effects of protein concentration, degradability, and quality on plasma urea concentration and milk N constituents. Diets varied in the amount and proportion of RDP and RUP relative to NRC requirements: diet 1, excessive RDP, deficient RUP; diets 2 and 3, balanced for RDP and RUP; and diet 4, excessive RDP, balanced for RUP. Diet 3 was formulated for optimal AA balance as predicted by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Diets contained 34% corn silage, 19% alfalfa haylage, and 49% concentrate (DM basis). Concentrates varied in amounts of urea and soybean, corn gluten, and fish and blood meals. Concentrations of urea N and NPN in milk varied among diets: diet 1, 19 and 34 mg/dl; diet 2, 16 and 31 mg/dl; diet 3, 15 and 30 mg/dl; and diet 4, 23 and 39 mg/dl, respectively. Increases in NPN concentration were attributed to increases in the urea fraction of NPN. Intake of RUP and AA balance influenced milk true protein content; diet 1, 2.89%; diet 2, 2.90%; diet 3, 3.01%; and diet 4, 2.95%. the proportions of true protein and urea in milk are influenced by CP concentration, protein type, and protein quality.
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between milk urea N and days in milk, parity, and season in Iranian Holstein cows. Twelve Iranian commercial dairy herds participated in a 13-mo study from December 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009. All cows were milked 3 times daily, housed in freestalls, and fed a total mixed ration twice a day. Mean milk urea N over the study period was 16.0mg/dL. Mean milk urea N, categorized by 30-d increments of days in milk, paralleled changes in milk values and followed a curvilinear shape. However, milk urea N concentration reached a maximum at the fifth month of days in milk, but milk production reached a maximum at the third month. The concentration of milk urea N was lower during the first 30 d in milk category compared with all other days in milk categories. Overall mean milk urea N concentration of Holstein cows in the third and greater lactations was lower than in the first or second lactation. Milk urea N was at its lowest level in December (13 mg/dL), increased in the spring and summer months, and reached a maximum in July (18.8 mg/dL). From that point, milk urea N concentration progressively diminished to the autumn-winter level. In this study, milk urea N concentration was positively correlated with monthly temperature mean and may be a reason for the lower reproductive performance during the summer months. It has been recommended that milk urea N concentration should be evaluated in association with parity, days in milk, and season (or month). These variables should be considered potential sources of misinterpretation when exploring the relationship between milk urea N and nutritional management or measures of performance.Journal of Dairy Science 09/2012; 95(9):5156-63. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of three sources of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of mid-lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk composition and on digestibility in sheep. DDGS from wheat, corn and barley (DDGS1 ), wheat and corn (DDGS2 ) and wheat (DDGS3 ) were studied and compared with a rapeseed meal (RSM). RSM and DDGS were characterized through in situ crude protein (CP) degradability. Nutrient digestibility was determined in sheep. Twenty-four multiparous cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Treatments included total mixed rations containing as primary protein sources RSM (control), DDGS1 (D1), DDGS2 (D2) or DDGS3 (D3). RSM contained less rapidly degradable CP (fraction a), more potentially degradable CP (fraction b) and more rumen undegradable CP (UDP) than the three DDGS. In vivo digestibility of RSM organic matter was similar to DDGS. Calculated net energy for lactation (NEL ) was lower for RSM (7.4 MJ/kg DM) than for DDGS, which averaged 7.7 MJ/kg DM. Cows' dry matter intake did not differ between diets (21.7 kg/day). Cows fed D1 yielded more milk than those fed D3 (31.7 vs. 30.4 kg/day); no differences were found between control and DDGS diets (31.3 vs. 31.1 kg/day). Energy-corrected milk was similar among diets (31.2 kg/day). Diets affected neither milk fat concentration (4.0%) nor milk fat yield (1.24 kg/day). Milk protein yield of control (1.12 kg/day) was significantly higher than D3 (1.06 kg/day) but not different form D1 and D2 (1.08 kg/day each). Feeding DDGS significantly increased milk lactose concentration (4.91%) in relation to control (4.81%). DDGS can be a suitable feed in relation to RSM and can be fed up to 4 kg dry matter per day in rations of dairy cows in mid-lactation. However, high variation of protein and energy values of DDGS should be considered when included in diets of dairy cows.J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 06/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The intake of the dry matter (DM), the crude protein (CP) and the metabolizable energy intake (ME) in megacalories per day (Mcal/day) were not affected by the diets. In contrast, the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), in g/kg BW, increased linearly. An increasing linear effect was also observed for the ether extract (EE) intake, whereas a decreasing linear performance was observed for the non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) intake. The digestibility of DM, organic matter and NFC decreased linearly with the sunflower cake inclusion, whereas the digestibility of CP, NDF, and EE were not influenced by the diets. No effect was observed for the concentration of serum glucose or urea nitrogen serum. No effect was observed on the urea nitrogen serum in the hours after feeding; however, including sunflower cake in the diets resulted in a quadratic performance for the serum glucose concentrations in the hours after feeding. The average daily gain (ADG) had a decreasing linear effect, and the food conversions of the DM, CP, NDF, NFC and ME had increasing linear effects. The feeding costs decreased with the level of sunflower cake.Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 01/2012; 41(1):123-130. · 0.56 Impact Factor