Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows
ABSTRACT Four multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to investigate the effects of protein concentration, degradability, and quality on plasma urea concentration and milk N constituents. Diets varied in the amount and proportion of RDP and RUP relative to NRC requirements: diet 1, excessive RDP, deficient RUP; diets 2 and 3, balanced for RDP and RUP; and diet 4, excessive RDP, balanced for RUP. Diet 3 was formulated for optimal AA balance as predicted by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Diets contained 34% corn silage, 19% alfalfa haylage, and 49% concentrate (DM basis). Concentrates varied in amounts of urea and soybean, corn gluten, and fish and blood meals. Concentrations of urea N and NPN in milk varied among diets: diet 1, 19 and 34 mg/dl; diet 2, 16 and 31 mg/dl; diet 3, 15 and 30 mg/dl; and diet 4, 23 and 39 mg/dl, respectively. Increases in NPN concentration were attributed to increases in the urea fraction of NPN. Intake of RUP and AA balance influenced milk true protein content; diet 1, 2.89%; diet 2, 2.90%; diet 3, 3.01%; and diet 4, 2.95%. the proportions of true protein and urea in milk are influenced by CP concentration, protein type, and protein quality.
- SourceAvailable from: Torben Larsen
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- "iktorsson , 1983 ; Oltner et al . , 1985 ) . If the amount of energy supplied in the feed is adequate , milk urea nitrogen is indicative for protein status , i . e . , higher levels with excess protein provided and lower levels with deficit levels of protein ( Roseler et al . , 1993 ) , but also type of protein fed will affect the protein status ( Baker et al . , 1995 ) . The associations found in the present study between DIM , and LDH or NAGase were similar to the findings of Chagunda et al . ( 2006 ) . Unlike in our study , they also found a significant association between SCC and DIM , which others also have shown ( Brolund , 1985 ; Laevens et al . , 1997 ; Schepers et al . , 1997 ) . However , i"
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in LDH and 2% of the variation in NAGase, indicating that SCC has the best potential as a diagnostic tool in finding cows with IMI. However, further studies are needed to investigate whether the diagnostic properties of these udder-health indicators will improve with adjustment according to their associations with different cow factors when used as a diagnostic tool for finding cows with IMI.Journal of Dairy Science 07/2014; 97(9). DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-7885 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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- "Overfeeding also contributes to higher feed costs (Kaim et al., 1983; Ferguson et al., 1988; Blanchard et al., 1990; Baker et al., 1995). Conversely, underfeeding protein may result in impaired fertility (Miettinen and Juvonen, 1990) and suboptimal milk production (Baker et al., 1995). The association between MUN and both nutritional management and performance should be determined under field conditions by using commercial testing procedures (Bonnett, 1990; Sackett et al., 1991). "
ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between milk urea N and days in milk, parity, and season in Iranian Holstein cows. Twelve Iranian commercial dairy herds participated in a 13-mo study from December 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009. All cows were milked 3 times daily, housed in freestalls, and fed a total mixed ration twice a day. Mean milk urea N over the study period was 16.0mg/dL. Mean milk urea N, categorized by 30-d increments of days in milk, paralleled changes in milk values and followed a curvilinear shape. However, milk urea N concentration reached a maximum at the fifth month of days in milk, but milk production reached a maximum at the third month. The concentration of milk urea N was lower during the first 30 d in milk category compared with all other days in milk categories. Overall mean milk urea N concentration of Holstein cows in the third and greater lactations was lower than in the first or second lactation. Milk urea N was at its lowest level in December (13 mg/dL), increased in the spring and summer months, and reached a maximum in July (18.8 mg/dL). From that point, milk urea N concentration progressively diminished to the autumn-winter level. In this study, milk urea N concentration was positively correlated with monthly temperature mean and may be a reason for the lower reproductive performance during the summer months. It has been recommended that milk urea N concentration should be evaluated in association with parity, days in milk, and season (or month). These variables should be considered potential sources of misinterpretation when exploring the relationship between milk urea N and nutritional management or measures of performance.Journal of Dairy Science 09/2012; 95(9):5156-63. DOI:10.3168/jds.2011-4349 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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- "Urea is transported in blood to the kidneys and part of it diffuses to milk (Gustafsson and Palmquist, 1993). Urea is related to dietary CP intake, percentage of rumen degradable and undegradable protein (Baker et al., 1995), and the ratio of nitrogen to water-soluble carbohydrates (Trevaskis and Fulkerson, 1999). It is positively associated with stage of lactation (Trevaskis and Fulkerson, 1999; Godden et al., 2001). "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) with 3 milk production traits [milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY)] and 6 fertility measures (number of inseminations, calving interval, interval from calving to first insemination, interval from calving to last insemination, interval from first to last insemination, and pregnancy at first insemination). Data consisted of 635,289 test-day records of MY, FY, PY, and MUN on 76,959 first-lactation Swedish Holstein cows calving from 2001 to 2003, and corresponding lactation records for the fertility traits. Yields and MUN were analyzed with a random regression model followed by a multi-trait model in which the lactation was broken into 10 monthly periods. Heritability for MUN was stable across lactation (between 0.16 and 0.18), whereas MY, FY, and PY had low heritability at the beginning of lactation, which increased with time and stabilized after 100 d in milk, at 0.47, 0.36, and 0.44, respectively. Fertility traits had low heritabilities (0.02 to 0.05). Phenotypic correlations of MUN and milk production traits were between 0.13 (beginning of lactation) and 0.00 (end of lactation). Genetic correlations of MUN and MY, FY, and PY followed similar trends and were positive (0.22) at the beginning and negative (-0.15) at the end of lactation. Phenotypic correlations of MUN and fertility were close to zero. A surprising result was that genetic correlations of MUN and fertility traits suggest a positive relationship between the 2 traits for most of the lactation, indicating that animals with breeding values for increased MUN also had breeding values for improved fertility. This result was obtained with a random regression model as well as with a multi-trait model. The analyzed group of cows had a moderate level of MUN concentration. In such a population MUN concentration may increase slightly due to selection for improved fertility. Conversely, selection for increased MUN concentration may improve fertility slightly.Journal of Dairy Science 11/2011; 94(11):5665-72. DOI:10.3168/jds.2010-3916 · 2.55 Impact Factor