Renal allograft survival according to primary diagnosis: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study.
ABSTRACT The data base of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) was used to examine the effect of primary diagnosis on the outcome of renal transplantation in children. The relative risk of graft failure for eight diagnostic groups was determined, with patients with congenital and structural anomalies of the urinary tract serving as the reference group. Covariate analysis was used to control for the effects of age, race and transfusion history in recipients of living-related donor kidneys, and for age, donor age, antilymphocyte prophylaxis, prior transplantation, prior dialysis and cold ischemia time in recipients of cadaver kidneys. In recipients of living-related donor kidneys, the lowest graft failure rates were associated with the diagnoses of cystinosis, familial nephritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), while the highest failure rates were observed in patients with a primary diagnosis of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In cadaver allograft recipients, the lowest graft failure rates were associated with primary diagnoses of glomerulonephritis, congenital/structural disease and cystinosis, while patients with FSGS, HUS and CNS had the highest graft failure rates. This study suggests that patients with a primary diagnosis of cystinosis have superior outcomes, while the diagnoses of FSGS and CNS carry with them the highest risks of graft failure.
Article: Familial hematuria.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hematuria is a common presenting complaint in pediatric nephrology clinics and often has a familial basis. This teaching article provides an overview of causes, diagnosis, and management of the major forms of familial hematuria, Alport syndrome, and thin basement membrane nephropathy.Pediatric Nephrology 11/2007; 24(10):1951-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary glomerulopathy due to abnormal composition of the glomerular basement membrane, leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Studies of animal models of AS have suggested a variety of potentially effective therapies, but none of these has been definitely shown to prevent or delay ESRD in human AS. Studies in Alport mice suggest that angiotensin inhibition not only has antiproteinuric effects but suppresses cytokine and collagen production as well as tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis and inflammation. For these reasons, many Alport patients are treated empirically with angiotensin antagonists. Cyclosporine may reduce proteinuria in AS, but the risk of nephrotoxic side effects complicates long-term therapy in children. Current data on the role of HMG-CoA reductase inhibition are sparse, so therapy should be limited to adults with dyslipoproteinemia. Results of some, but not all, studies suggest that bone marrow-derived cells may ameliorate disease in Alport mice. However, until experimental doubts concerning the superiority of bone-marrow transplantation over other treatments are resolved by additional investigation, human research subjects should not be exposed to cell-based therapies that may carry substantial risks. In summary, all potential therapies are off-label use in children. As a consequence, initial therapeutic trials should focus on the safety and efficiency of medical treatment, as well as the optimal timing of therapy.Kidney International 07/2009; 76(6):599-603. · 6.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cystinosis is the major cause of inherited Fanconi syndrome, and should be suspected in young children with failure to thrive and signs of renal proximal tubular damage. The diagnosis can be missed in infants, because not all signs of renal Fanconi syndrome are present during the first months of life. In older patients cystinosis can mimic idiopathic nephrotic syndrome due to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Measuring elevated white blood cell cystine content is the corner stone for the diagnosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by molecular analysis of the cystinosin gene. Corneal cystine crystals are invariably present in all patients with cystinosis after the age of 1 year. Treatment with the cystine depleting drug cysteamine should be initiated as soon as possible and continued lifelong to prolong renal function survival and protect extra-renal organs. This educational feature provides practical tools for the diagnosis and treatment of cystinosis.Pediatric Nephrology 02/2011; 26(2):205-15. · 2.52 Impact Factor