Naming norms for brief environmental sounds: effects of age and dementia.
ABSTRACT Brief nontonal sounds are used in electrophysiology in the novelty oddball paradigm. These sounds vary in the brain activity they elicit and in the degree to which they can be identified, named, and remembered. Because ease of sound identification may influence sound processing, naming and conceptual norms were determined for 100 sounds for 77 young adults (Experiment 1). Naming ability decreases in normal and pathological aging. Therefore, norms were also derived for older adults (Experiment 2) and for probable Alzheimer's disease patients (Experiment 3). With respect to the young adults, perseverative naming behavior increased in these groups, and sound and picture naming performance were correlated. In Experiment 4, the sound-naming performance of children aged 5-6, 9-11, and 14-16 years was compared. Name and conceptual agreements improved with age, whereas perseverative behavior decreased. These normative data should be useful in guiding sound selection in future studies and help clarify the relationships between sound naming and other variables, including direct and indirect memory performance.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated changes in behavioral performance before and after watching a multi-view 3D content by using auditory stimuli based on the selective attention theory in order to quantitatively evaluate 3D visual fatigue. Twenty-one undergraduates were asked to report on their current visual and physical condition both in the pre- and post-experiment. A selective attention task was conducted before and after mobile 3D viewing to compare the changes in performance. After performing a Wilcoxon's matched-pairs signed-ranks test on the subjective ratings of 3D visual fatigue, participants were categorized into two groups, unfatigued and fatigued group with a definite criterion. For the unfatigued group, no significant fatigue effects were found in behavioral response times and accuracies to specific auditory targets. In sharply contrast to the unfatigued group, the fatigued group showed significantly delayed response times and less response accuracies. However, no significant changes in accuracies for a working memory task were observed in both groups.The Journal of Korea Information and Communications Society. 01/2013; 38C(11).
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ABSTRACT: Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112091. · 3.53 Impact Factor