Naming norms for brief environmental sounds: effects of age and dementia.
ABSTRACT Brief nontonal sounds are used in electrophysiology in the novelty oddball paradigm. These sounds vary in the brain activity they elicit and in the degree to which they can be identified, named, and remembered. Because ease of sound identification may influence sound processing, naming and conceptual norms were determined for 100 sounds for 77 young adults (Experiment 1). Naming ability decreases in normal and pathological aging. Therefore, norms were also derived for older adults (Experiment 2) and for probable Alzheimer's disease patients (Experiment 3). With respect to the young adults, perseverative naming behavior increased in these groups, and sound and picture naming performance were correlated. In Experiment 4, the sound-naming performance of children aged 5-6, 9-11, and 14-16 years was compared. Name and conceptual agreements improved with age, whereas perseverative behavior decreased. These normative data should be useful in guiding sound selection in future studies and help clarify the relationships between sound naming and other variables, including direct and indirect memory performance.
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ABSTRACT: While the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been used widely among adult populations to evaluate the effects of frontal-lobe lesions, no comparable work has been done among younger populations due, in part, to the lack of an adequate normative base. This study presents developmental norms by age for the WCST for 105 school-age children. The data indicate that, by the time children are 10 years old, their performance on the WCST is indistinguishable from that of normal adults. Examination of the acquisition curves by age for Categories Achieved, Perseverative Errors, and Failures to Maintain Set reveals developmental changes that roughly correspond with neuroanatomical changes in the brain and cognitive stages of development. The present developmental norms are intended to complement and extend existing adult norms for the WCST and to facilitate the clinical use of the WCST as a neuropsychological test in child populations.Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 07/1986; 8(3):219-28. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several cross-sectional studies have found an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and limited educational experience. It has been difficult to establish whether educational experience is a risk factor for AD because educational attainment can influence performance on diagnostic tests. This study was designed to determine whether limited educational level and occupational attainment are risk factors for incident dementia. Cohort incidence study. General community. A total of 593 nondemented individuals aged 60 years or older who were listed in a registry of individuals at risk for dementia in North Manhattan, NY, were identified and followed up. We reexamined subjects 1 to 4 years later with the identical standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures. Incident dementia. We used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age and gender, to estimate the relative risk (RR) of incident dementia associated with low educational and occupational attainment. Of the 593 subjects, 106 became demented; all but five of these met research criteria for AD. The risk of dementia was increased in subjects with either low education (RR, 2.02; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.33 to 3.06) or low lifetime occupational attainment (RR, 2.25; 95% Cl, 1.32 to 3.84). Risk was greatest for subjects with both low education and low life-time occupational attainment (RR, 2.87; 95% Cl, 1.32 to 3.84). The data suggest that increased educational and occupational attainment may reduce the risk of incident AD, either by decreasing ease of clinical detection of AD or by imparting a reserve that delays the onset of clinical manifestations.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/1994; 271(13):1004-10. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 60-item Boston Naming Test was administered to a group of 78 normal, bright, and independently living older adults in five age groupings from 59 to 80+ in an attempt to generate normative data for an older population. Results indicated that naming abilities decline only slightly with advancing age (r = -.33), although consistent with prior research, more variation in performance was found in the higher age groups.Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 01/1987; 8(6):702-5. · 1.86 Impact Factor