Naming norms for brief environmental sounds: effects of age and dementia.
ABSTRACT Brief nontonal sounds are used in electrophysiology in the novelty oddball paradigm. These sounds vary in the brain activity they elicit and in the degree to which they can be identified, named, and remembered. Because ease of sound identification may influence sound processing, naming and conceptual norms were determined for 100 sounds for 77 young adults (Experiment 1). Naming ability decreases in normal and pathological aging. Therefore, norms were also derived for older adults (Experiment 2) and for probable Alzheimer's disease patients (Experiment 3). With respect to the young adults, perseverative naming behavior increased in these groups, and sound and picture naming performance were correlated. In Experiment 4, the sound-naming performance of children aged 5-6, 9-11, and 14-16 years was compared. Name and conceptual agreements improved with age, whereas perseverative behavior decreased. These normative data should be useful in guiding sound selection in future studies and help clarify the relationships between sound naming and other variables, including direct and indirect memory performance.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated changes in behavioral performance before and after watching a multi-view 3D content by using auditory stimuli based on the selective attention theory in order to quantitatively evaluate 3D visual fatigue. Twenty-one undergraduates were asked to report on their current visual and physical condition both in the pre- and post-experiment. A selective attention task was conducted before and after mobile 3D viewing to compare the changes in performance. After performing a Wilcoxon's matched-pairs signed-ranks test on the subjective ratings of 3D visual fatigue, participants were categorized into two groups, unfatigued and fatigued group with a definite criterion. For the unfatigued group, no significant fatigue effects were found in behavioral response times and accuracies to specific auditory targets. In sharply contrast to the unfatigued group, the fatigued group showed significantly delayed response times and less response accuracies. However, no significant changes in accuracies for a working memory task were observed in both groups.The Journal of Korea Information and Communications Society. 01/2013; 38C(11).
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ABSTRACT: Prior research suggests that event-related potentials (ERP) obtained during active and passive auditory paradigms, which have demonstrated abnormal neurocognitive function in schizophrenia, may provide helpful tools in predicting transition to psychosis. In addition to ERP measures, reduced modulations of EEG alpha, reflecting top-down control required to inhibit irrelevant information, have revealed attentional deficits in schizophrenia and its prodromal stage. Employing a three-stimulus novelty oddball task, nose-referenced 48-channel ERPs were recorded from 22 clinical high-risk (CHR) patients and 20 healthy controls detecting target tones (12% probability, 500Hz; button press) among nontargets (76%, 350Hz) and novel sounds (12%). After current source density (CSD) transformation of EEG epochs (-200 to 1000ms), event-related spectral perturbations were obtained for each site up to 30Hz and 800ms after stimulus onset, and simplified by unrestricted time-frequency (TF) principal components analysis (PCA). Alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) as measured by TF factor 610-9 (spectral peak latency at 610ms and 9Hz; 31.9% variance) was prominent over right posterior regions for targets, and markedly reduced in CHR patients compared to controls, particularly in three patients who later developed psychosis. In contrast, low-frequency event-related synchronization (ERS) distinctly linked to novels (260-1; 16.0%; mid-frontal) and N1 sink across conditions (130-1; 3.4%; centro-temporoparietal) did not differ between groups. Analogous time-domain CSD-ERP measures (temporal PCA), consisting of N1 sink, novelty mismatch negativity (MMN), novelty vertex source, novelty P3, P3b, and frontal response negativity, were robust and closely comparable between groups. Novelty MMN at FCz was, however, absent in the three converters. In agreement with prior findings, alpha ERD and MMN may hold particular promise for predicting transition to psychosis among CHR patients.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor