Naming norms for brief environmental sounds: Effects of age and dementia
ABSTRACT Brief nontonal sounds are used in electrophysiology in the novelty oddball paradigm. These sounds vary in the brain activity they elicit and in the degree to which they can be identified, named, and remembered. Because ease of sound identification may influence sound processing, naming and conceptual norms were determined for 100 sounds for 77 young adults (Experiment 1). Naming ability decreases in normal and pathological aging. Therefore, norms were also derived for older adults (Experiment 2) and for probable Alzheimer's disease patients (Experiment 3). With respect to the young adults, perseverative naming behavior increased in these groups, and sound and picture naming performance were correlated. In Experiment 4, the sound-naming performance of children aged 5-6, 9-11, and 14-16 years was compared. Name and conceptual agreements improved with age, whereas perseverative behavior decreased. These normative data should be useful in guiding sound selection in future studies and help clarify the relationships between sound naming and other variables, including direct and indirect memory performance.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated behavioral responses to and auditory event-related potential (ERP) correlates of mental fatigue caused by mobile three-dimensional (3D) viewing. Twenty-six participants (14 women) performed a selective attention task in which they were asked to respond to the sounds presented at the attended side while ignoring sounds at the ignored side before and after mobile 3D viewing. Considering different individual susceptibilities to 3D, participants' subjective fatigue data were used to categorize them into two groups: fatigued and unfatigued. The amplitudes of d-ERP components were defined as differences in amplitudes between time-locked brain oscillations of the attended and ignored sounds, and these values were used to calculate the degree to which spatial selective attention was impaired by 3D mental fatigue. The fatigued group showed significantly longer response times after mobile 3D viewing compared to before the viewing. However, response accuracy did not significantly change between the two conditions, implying that the participants used a behavioral strategy to cope with their performance accuracy decrement by increasing their response times. No significant differences were observed for the unfatigued group. Analysis of covariance revealed group differences with significant and trends toward significant decreases in the d-P200 and d-late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes at the occipital electrodes of the fatigued and unfatigued groups. Our findings indicate that mentally fatigued participants did not effectively block out distractors in their information processing mechanism, providing support for the hypothesis that 3D mental fatigue impairs spatial selective attention and is characterized by changes in d-P200 and d-LPP amplitudes.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.08.1389 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prior research suggests that event-related potentials (ERP) obtained during active and passive auditory paradigms, which have demonstrated abnormal neurocognitive function in schizophrenia, may provide helpful tools in predicting transition to psychosis. In addition to ERP measures, reduced modulations of EEG alpha, reflecting top-down control required to inhibit irrelevant information, have revealed attentional deficits in schizophrenia and its prodromal stage. Employing a three-stimulus novelty oddball task, nose-referenced 48-channel ERPs were recorded from 22 clinical high-risk (CHR) patients and 20 healthy controls detecting target tones (12% probability, 500Hz; button press) among nontargets (76%, 350Hz) and novel sounds (12%). After current source density (CSD) transformation of EEG epochs (-200 to 1000ms), event-related spectral perturbations were obtained for each site up to 30Hz and 800ms after stimulus onset, and simplified by unrestricted time-frequency (TF) principal components analysis (PCA). Alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) as measured by TF factor 610-9 (spectral peak latency at 610ms and 9Hz; 31.9% variance) was prominent over right posterior regions for targets, and markedly reduced in CHR patients compared to controls, particularly in three patients who later developed psychosis. In contrast, low-frequency event-related synchronization (ERS) distinctly linked to novels (260-1; 16.0%; mid-frontal) and N1 sink across conditions (130-1; 3.4%; centro-temporoparietal) did not differ between groups. Analogous time-domain CSD-ERP measures (temporal PCA), consisting of N1 sink, novelty mismatch negativity (MMN), novelty vertex source, novelty P3, P3b, and frontal response negativity, were robust and closely comparable between groups. Novelty MMN at FCz was, however, absent in the three converters. In agreement with prior findings, alpha ERD and MMN may hold particular promise for predicting transition to psychosis among CHR patients.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.12.003 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether task-irrelevant novel sounds presented during an auditory task can provide information about the level of listening effort. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for novel sounds presented during two Experiments, a frequency discrimination task and a speech-perception-in-noise (SPIN) test, each with varying degrees of task difficulty (easy, medium, hard). Difficulty was adjusted to the individual frequency discrimination threshold and 50% speech recognition signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), respectively. Older listeners (age range 60-86years) with either normal hearing for their age or a mild-to-moderate hearing loss participated. Amplitudes of Novelty P3 and late positive potential (LPP) increased with increasing task difficulty, whereas amplitudes of N1 and N2 decreased. Participants with hearing loss had significantly larger LPP amplitudes in the easy condition of the SPIN test than did normal-hearing listeners. Most correlations between ERP amplitudes and behavioral data were not significant suggesting that listening effort is not a simple equivalent of behavioral performance. LPP amplitude appeared to be the most sensitive component for capturing listening effort reflecting the arousal level of the listener. ERPs to novel sounds could be easily recorded during hearing tests and provide an objective physiological measure of listening effort, thus supplementing behavioral performance data.Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2013; 125(5). DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.09.045 · 2.98 Impact Factor