Naming norms for brief environmental sounds: Effects of age and dementia
ABSTRACT Brief nontonal sounds are used in electrophysiology in the novelty oddball paradigm. These sounds vary in the brain activity they elicit and in the degree to which they can be identified, named, and remembered. Because ease of sound identification may influence sound processing, naming and conceptual norms were determined for 100 sounds for 77 young adults (Experiment 1). Naming ability decreases in normal and pathological aging. Therefore, norms were also derived for older adults (Experiment 2) and for probable Alzheimer's disease patients (Experiment 3). With respect to the young adults, perseverative naming behavior increased in these groups, and sound and picture naming performance were correlated. In Experiment 4, the sound-naming performance of children aged 5-6, 9-11, and 14-16 years was compared. Name and conceptual agreements improved with age, whereas perseverative behavior decreased. These normative data should be useful in guiding sound selection in future studies and help clarify the relationships between sound naming and other variables, including direct and indirect memory performance.
SourceAvailable from: Sibylle Bertoli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant novel sounds have been shown to increase in amplitude with increasing task difficulty and might therefore reflect listening effort. Here we investigated whether this effect is similar in two groups of younger and older listeners with normal hearing. Novel sounds were presented during a speech-perception-in noise test and task difficulty was adjusted decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relative to the individual 50% correct speech recognition SNR (easy +10dB, medium +2dB, hard 0dB). Amplitudes of the Novelty P3 and a late positive potential (LPP) were significantly larger in younger compared to older participants. Novelty P3 amplitude increased with increasing task difficulty in both age groups, but the effect was more robust in younger listeners. By contrast, LPP amplitude increases were observed only in older listeners. Novelty P3 and LPP were found to be differently affected by task difficulty in the two age groups indicating sustained and more effortful processing under challenging listening conditions in older listeners. These results confirmed the potential use of novel sounds during an auditory task as an indirect measure of listening effort in younger and older listeners, but the different focus on Novelty P3 and LPP should be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2015.02.055 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112091. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112091 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between motor skill and attentional reserve. Participants practiced a reaching task with the dominant upper extremity, to which a distortion of the visual feedback was applied, while a control group performed the same task without distortion. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), elicited by auditory stimuli were recorded throughout practice. Performance, as measured by initial directional error, was initially worse relative to controls and improved over trials. Analyses of the ERPs revealed that exogenous components, N1 and P2, were undifferentiated between the groups and did not change with practice. Notably, amplitude of the novelty P3 component, an index of the involuntary orienting of attention, was initially attenuated relative to controls, but progressively increased in amplitude over trials in the learning group only. The results provide psychophysiological evidence that attentional reserve increases as a function of motor skill acquisition.Biological Psychology 10/2014; 103. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.10.008 · 3.47 Impact Factor