Naming norms for brief environmental sounds: Effects of age and dementia
ABSTRACT Brief nontonal sounds are used in electrophysiology in the novelty oddball paradigm. These sounds vary in the brain activity they elicit and in the degree to which they can be identified, named, and remembered. Because ease of sound identification may influence sound processing, naming and conceptual norms were determined for 100 sounds for 77 young adults (Experiment 1). Naming ability decreases in normal and pathological aging. Therefore, norms were also derived for older adults (Experiment 2) and for probable Alzheimer's disease patients (Experiment 3). With respect to the young adults, perseverative naming behavior increased in these groups, and sound and picture naming performance were correlated. In Experiment 4, the sound-naming performance of children aged 5-6, 9-11, and 14-16 years was compared. Name and conceptual agreements improved with age, whereas perseverative behavior decreased. These normative data should be useful in guiding sound selection in future studies and help clarify the relationships between sound naming and other variables, including direct and indirect memory performance.
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- "During each condition, participants in the novel complex sound group were probed with a set of 30 novel complex sounds (e.g., a door knock, a dog bark, a whistle) randomly selected from a larger collection obtained from the New York State Psychiatric Institute (Fabiani et al., 1996). Each participant in the repeated complex sound group was probed 30 times during each condition with a single randomly selected sound from the set presented to the novel complex sound group (e.g., a door knock or a dog bark or a whistle). "
ABSTRACT: We examined whether the utility of a recently developed auditory probe technique for indexing cognitive workload was dependent on the stimulus properties of the probes. EEG was recorded while participants played a videogame under various levels of cognitive workload. At each level of workload, participants were probed with one of four different types of auditory stimuli: novel complex, repeated complex, novel simple, or repeated simple sounds. Probe efficacy at indexing cognitive workload was assessed by determining which probes elicited ERP components that decreased monotonically as a function of workload. Results suggest complex auditory stimuli were significantly more effective in indexing cognitive workload than simple stimuli. The efficacy of complex stimuli was due to their ability to elicit a robust orienting response, indexed by the early P3a component of the ERP, which decreased monotonically as a function of cognitive workload. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014; 95(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.12.008 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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- "Environmental sound recognition has been studied in related disciplines to evaluate such things as awareness of, and tolerance for, sounds in the environment (Dawson et al, 2004; Thawin et al, 2006; Dockrell and Shield, 2004; Spaulding et al, 2008); pattern recognition in autistic children (van Lancker et al, 1988); and the development of left-versus right-ear dominance in children (Kraft et al, 1995; Kraft, 1982). Fabiani et al (1996) used an environmental-sounds naming paradigm to examine, among other things, the effects of developing and aging cognition. Their experimental groups included typically developing children (ages 5–7, 9– 11, and 14–16 yr) as well as younger (ages 19–34 yr) and older adults (ages 61–88 yr). "
ABSTRACT: Fast- and slow-acting amplitude compression parameters have complementary strengths and weaknesses that limit the full benefit of this feature to hearing aid users. Adaptive time constants have been suggested in the literature as a means of optimizing the benefits of amplitude compression. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three amplitude compression release times (slow, fast, and adaptive) on children's and adults' accuracy for categorizing speech and environmental sounds. Participants were asked to categorize speech or environmental sounds embedded in short trials containing low-level playground noise. Stimulus trials included either a high-level environmental sound followed by a lower-level speech stimulus (word) or a high-level speech stimulus followed by a lower-level environmental sound. The listeners responded to the second (low-level) stimulus in each trial. The two stimuli overlapped temporally in half of the trials but not in the other half. The stimulus trials were processed to simulate amplitude compression having fast (40 msec), slow (800 msec), or adaptive release times. The adaptive-compression parameters operated in a slow fashion until a sudden increase/decrease in level required a rapid change in gain. Participants were 15 children and 26 adults with hearing loss (HL) as well as 20 children and 21 adults with normal hearing (NH). Data Collection and Analyses: Performance (in % correct) was arcsine transformed and subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance with pairwise comparisons of significant main effects using Bonferroni adjustments for multiple comparisons. Overall, the performance of listeners with HL was poorer than that of the listeners with NH and performance for the environmental sounds was poorer than for the speech stimuli, particularly for the adults and children with HL. Significant effects of age group, stimulus overlap, and compression speed were observed for the listeners with NH, whereas effects of stimulus overlap and compression speed were found for the listeners with HL. Whereas listeners with NH achieved optimal performance with slow-acting compression, the listeners with HL achieved optimal performance with adaptive compression. Although slow, fast, and adaptive compression affects the acoustic signal in a subtle fashion, amplitude compression significantly affects perception of speech and environmental sounds. American Academy of Audiology.Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 10/2014; 25(9):834-47. DOI:10.3766/jaaa.25.9.6 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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- "We used 8-bit unsigned mono versions of Neuroscan Sound Conversion Notes (Fabiani et al., 1996), which are natural auditory sounds. Forty natural sounds were randomly selected from a natural sound pool of 100 environmental sounds (Fabiani et al., 1996; Miller et al., 2011). The sounds were presented to each participant with random intervals between 6 and 20 s from two channel stereo speakers next to a 23-in LCD monitor, which was placed 60 cm away from the participants. "
ABSTRACT: This study investigated behavioral responses to and auditory event-related potential (ERP) correlates of mental fatigue caused by mobile three-dimensional (3D) viewing. Twenty-six participants (14 women) performed a selective attention task in which they were asked to respond to the sounds presented at the attended side while ignoring sounds at the ignored side before and after mobile 3D viewing. Considering different individual susceptibilities to 3D, participants' subjective fatigue data were used to categorize them into two groups: fatigued and unfatigued. The amplitudes of d-ERP components were defined as differences in amplitudes between time-locked brain oscillations of the attended and ignored sounds, and these values were used to calculate the degree to which spatial selective attention was impaired by 3D mental fatigue. The fatigued group showed significantly longer response times after mobile 3D viewing compared to before the viewing. However, response accuracy did not significantly change between the two conditions, implying that the participants used a behavioral strategy to cope with their performance accuracy decrement by increasing their response times. No significant differences were observed for the unfatigued group. Analysis of covariance revealed group differences with significant and trends toward significant decreases in the d-P200 and d-late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes at the occipital electrodes of the fatigued and unfatigued groups. Our findings indicate that mentally fatigued participants did not effectively block out distractors in their information processing mechanism, providing support for the hypothesis that 3D mental fatigue impairs spatial selective attention and is characterized by changes in d-P200 and d-LPP amplitudes.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 09/2014; 94(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.08.1389 · 2.65 Impact Factor