Human Cart-1: structural organization, chromosomal localization, and functional analysis of a cartilage-specific homeodomain cDNA.
ABSTRACT Homeoproteins control cell fates during development, specifying pattern formation and the ontogeny of specific tissues and organs in embryogenesis. Cart-1 cDNA was recently cloned from a rat chondrosarcoma tumor and it encodes a protein containing a paired-like homeodomain that is selectively expressed in cartilage during early chondrocyte differentiation. Here we report the molecular cloning of the human Cart-1 cDNA from a HeLa cervical carcinoma cDNA library. The human Cart-1 cDNA sequence is 88% identical and the deduced amino acid sequence is 95% identical to the rat sequence, indicating that Cart-1 structure is highly conserved. Northern and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed Cart-1 mRNA expression in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and human cervical tissue, but Cart-1 mRNA was not detected in GH3 rat pituitary cells and murine 10T1/2 one-half fibroblast cells. The Cart-1 gene was localized to human chromosome 12 and regionally mapped to the 12q21.3-q22 by PCR analysis of rodent-X-human somatic cell hybrid DNA and the CEPH megabase-insert YAC DNA pools, respectively. The Holt-Oram syndrome, characterized by upper limb and atrial septal dysplasias, also maps to the 12q21.3-q22 region. Cotransfection studies show that Cart-1 inhibits the rat prolactin promoter and that this repression is mediated by footprint II, an AT-rich element that functions as an inhibitory site of prolactin gene expression in nonpituitary cells and which was used to clone Cart-1. Taken together, these data indicate that Cart-1 may also influence cervix development, identify a putative DNA binding site for Cart-1, and, begin to define its functional role as modulator of gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology 04/2008; 47(1):1-9.