Cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium in synaptosomes during aging.
ABSTRACT Synaptosomal [Ca2+]i levels increase during aging, particularly in the old rat hippocampus, both under basal conditions and after high K depolarization. This is probably the result of age-dependent modifications in calcium buffering and extrusion systems rather than due to increased calcium influx, since calcium uptake through synaptosomal voltage gated calcium channels decreases in old animals. The calcium binding capacity of the cytosolic compartment (i.e, that excluded from mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum) of synaptosomes was markedly reduced in old rats. Calcium compartmentation in synaptosomal mitochondria, is also reduced during aging, and this is associated with a decrease in activity of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Taken together, these modifications point towards a clear deterioration of the cell calcium homeostatic mechanisms towards increased [Ca2+]i in old age, specially under conditions of high calcium loads, a situation that may exacerbate neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Information regarding age-induced Ca(2+) signal alterations in nonexcitable cells is limited. In addition, little evidence exists on the ability of melatonin to palliate the effects of aging on Ca(2+) signals and mitochondrial potential, a parameter involved in both Ca(2+) signaling and aging. We studied the ability of melatonin to prevent the effects of aging on intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and mitochondrial potential in exocrine cells. Pancreatic acinar cells were obtained from adult (3 months old) and aged (22-24 months old) mice by collagenase dispersion. Ca(2+) signals, in situ mitochondrial potential and in vitro amylase secretion were determined. Secretion in response to increasing levels of the secretagogues, acetylcholine and cholecystokinin (CCK), were impaired in aged pancreatic acini. This decrease was accompanied by an inhibition in the amplitude of the peak response to maximal concentrations of the agonists, and by a decrease in the pattern of Ca(2+) oscillations induced by postprandial levels of CCK. Both the size of the calcium pools, assessed by low levels of ionomycin, and capacitative calcium entry, induced by depletion of the stores with thapsigargin, were diminished in aged cells. These changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis were associated with depolarization of intracellular mitochondria. Oral administration of melatonin for 3 months to aged mice restored the secretory response, the amplitude and frequency of Ca(2+) responses, the size of intracellular calcium pools, the capacitative calcium entry, and the mitochondrial potential. In conclusion, melatonin restores secretory function, Ca(2+) signals and mitochondrial potential of aged exocrine cells.Journal of Pineal Research 01/2008; 45(2):191-198. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our previous studies demonstrated a significant decline in brain function and behavior in Fischer 344 (F344) rats with age. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysregulation in calcium homeostasis (as assessed through (45)Ca flux) may contribute to the increase in age-related vulnerability to oxidative stress in brain regions, and result in a deficit in behavior-mediated signaling. Crude membrane (P-2) and more purified synaptosomal fractions were isolated from the striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of young (6 months) and old (22 months) F344 rats and were assessed for calcium flux and extracellular-regulated kinase activity 1 (ERK) under control and oxidative stress conditions induced by low dose hydrogen peroxide (final concentration 5 microM). The level of oxidative stress responses was monitored by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). The results showed a significant difference in oxidative stress responses between young and old rats in evaluated brain regions. Old rats showed higher sensitivity to oxidative stress than young rats. The present findings show the differential effects of oxidative stress on calcium flux in brain regions with age that are dependent upon the brain areas examined and the fraction assessed. The accumulation of ROS and the decrease in GSH in the frontal cortex were sufficient to decrease ERK activity in old rats. This is the first study, to our knowledge, that demonstrates age-related differential sensitivity to oxidative stress expressed as a function of behavior-mediated signaling and stress levels among different fractions isolated from brain regions controlling behavior.Age 01/2008; 29(4):191-203. · 6.28 Impact Factor