Oral sensory stimulation improves glucose tolerance in humans: Effects on insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon
ABSTRACT In animals, bypassing the oropharyngeal receptors by intragastric administration of glucose results in glucose intolerance. To determine whether the absence of oral sensory stimulation alters glucose tolerance in humans, we monitored plasma levels of glucose and hormones after intragastric administration of glucose, with and without subjects tasting food. Plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lower after oral sensory stimulation (3,433 +/- 783 vs. 5,643 +/- 1,397 mg.dl-1. 195 min-1; P < 0.03; n = 8). Insulin and C-peptide AUCs were higher during the first one-half of the sampling period (insulin, 5,771 +/- 910 vs. 4,295 +/- 712 microU. ml-1.75 min-1; P < 0.05; C-peptide, 86 +/- 10 vs. 66 +/- 9 ng.ml-1. 75 min-1; P < 0.03) and lower during the second one-half of the sampling period compared with the control condition (1,010 +/- 233 vs. 2,106 microU.ml-1. 120 min-1; P < 0.025; 31 +/- 8 vs. 56 +/- 18 ng.ml-1. 120 min-1; P < 0.05; insulin and C-peptide, respectively). Oral sensory stimulation markedly increased plasma glucagon compared with the control condition (1,258 +/- 621 vs. -2,181 +/- 522 pg.ml-1. 195 min-1; P < 0.002). These data provide evidence in humans that oral sensory stimulation influences glucose metabolism and suggest that the mechanisms elicited by this cephalic stimulation are necessary for normal glucose homeostasis.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake. In a single-blind crossover design 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury). Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P < 0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P =0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward. To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Appetite 01/2015; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.01.021 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In humans little is known as to whether oral sensory stimulation with alcohol elicits cephalic phase responses. This study sought to determine whether oral alcohol exposure, in the form of white wine, provokes cephalic phase responses in normal-weight and overweight women. In a semi-randomized, crossover trial, eleven normal-weight and eleven overweight women sham-fed, after an overnight fast under three separate conditions 4 weeks apart, cake (750kJ), 25cL white wine (750kJ; approximately 26g alcohol) and 25cL water. Blood was drawn prior to and for 30min after two 3-min episodes of modified sham-feeding (MSF). Blood samples were analyzed for free fatty acid (FFA), triglyceride, glucose, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), insulin and alcohol concentrations. Incremental area under the curves (IAUC) of FFA concentrations differed significantly between the three treatments but not between BMI categories. After MSF with wine, FFA concentrations dropped to a minimum of 77+/-3% of baseline concentrations at t=12+/-2min after baseline and returned to baseline after approximately 30min, whereas after MSF with cake and water, FFA concentrations gradually increased. In conclusion, short-term oral white wine exposure substantially and temporarily decreases FFA concentrations suggesting a cephalic phase response of alcohol. This effect occurred regardless of BMI.Appetite 05/2010; 55(1):124-9. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2010.04.217 · 2.69 Impact Factor