It was recently demonstrated that calcium and vitamin D supplements were capable of decreasing the incidence of hip fractures in institutionalized elderly subjects through a reduction of senile secondary hyperparathyroidism. As there are no appropriate data to recommend such a supplement to the elderly living at home, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of senile secondary hyperparathyroidism in old French women from the general community, its relation to vitamin D status, and its contribution to bone turnover. Four hundred and forty women, aged 75-90 yr, were randomly selected from the general community by mailing from electoral listing in 5 French cities whose latitude varies from 49 degrees 9N to 43 degrees 6N. At the end of the winter, with previous hip fractures or those who were institutionalized were excluded. The results obtained in these women were compared to those obtained in 59 institutionalized old women and 54 younger healthy women. In the five cities for the women living at home, we found a mean PTH value greater than that obtained in young women (63 +/- 28 vs. 43 +/- 15 pg/ml; P = 0.001), but lower that that found in institutionalized women (76 +/- 49 pg/mL; P = 0.05). The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level was not different in subjects from the 5 cities, but in all of them it was significantly greater than that found in 59 institutionalized women (42.5 +/- 25.0 vs. 15.5 +/- 6.5 nmol/L; P = 0.0001) but lower than that in young adults (P < 0.001). The main determinants of PTH were in equal ratio, i.e. age (r = 0.19; P < 0.001), 25OHD, and, to a lesser degree, creatinine clearance (r = 0.10; P = 0.03). For 25OHD, the main determinant was the personal outdoor score and, to a lesser extent, the amount of daily sunlight in the city. The mean values of biochemical markers of bone turnover, bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Crosslaps, were significantly increased compared with the results obtained in young women, and significant negative correlations were found between these markers and hip bone mineral density. These results show that vitamin D status of a French aged population in good health and living at home depends mainly on lifestyle. Like institutionalized women, old women living at home exhibit clear evidence of senile hyperparathyroidism in the winter, secondary in part to a reduced 25OHD level and associated with biological signs of increased bone turnover. The maintenance of PTH within the normal range for healthy adults by vitamin D and calcium treatment might constitute an approach for the prevention of bone loss in the entire aged population.
"Vitamin D deficiency, a pandemic health problem, is a major cause of rickets in infants and toddlers and of osteopenia in adolescents      . The production of vitamin D in the skin depends on sunshine exposure, latitude, skincovering clothes, the use of sun block, and skin pigmentation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. We aimed to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels in
obese children and their nonobese peers. Materials and Methods. Included in the study group were 188 obese children (aged 9–15 years), and 68 age- and gender-matched healthy children of normal weight as control group. Anthropomorphic data were collected on patients and fasting serum glucose, insulin, serum lipids, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and 25-OHD were measured. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated in both groups. Results. The levels of 25-OHD in the obese group were significantly lower than those of the nonobese (P = 0.002). HOMA-IR, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and ALT levels in the obese group were significantly higher than values of control group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, resp.). In the obese group, vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency (25-OHD < 10 ng/dl, < 20, >10 ng/dl; > 20 ng/dl, resp.) were not correlated with HOMA-IR (r : −0.008, P = 0.935). HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with BMI, BMI SDS, and BMI%, and triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and ALT levels (P < 0.001).
Conclusion. The insulin resistance of the obese subjects who were vitamin D deficient and insufficient did not statistically differ from those with vitamin D sufficiency. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were not related with higher insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. In obese subjects, insulin resistance was affected more from BMI, BMI SDS, and BMI% than from 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
International Journal of Endocrinology 03/2013; 2013:631845. DOI:10.1155/2013/631845 · 1.95 Impact Factor
"noted that the relationships between vitamin D and non-skeletal outcomes warrant further research, but the existing data for such outcomes are too few to base recommendations upon (Holick and others 2011, Ross and others 2011). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are widespread in the United States and Canada, with estimates ranging from 20% to 100% of the population as vitamin D deficient (Chapuy and others 1996, Holick 2006, Holick 2007, Lips and others 2006, Greene- Finestone and others 2011, Holick and others 2011, 2005, Looker and others 2011, Whiting and others 2011). However, the definition of vitamin D inadequacy based on serum 25(OH)D concentration is a topic of debate, but is most commonly defined as either 20 ng/mL as by the Inst. of Medicine (Ross and others 2011) or 30 ng/mL as by the Endocrine Society (Holick and others 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
This study aimed to determine dietary vitamin D intake of U.S. Americans and Canadians and contributions of food sources to total vitamin D intake. Total of 7- or 14-d food intake data were analyzed for vitamin D by a proprietary nutrient assessment methodology that utilized food intake data from the Natl. Eating Trends(®) service, portion size data from NHANES 1999-2004, and nutrient values using the Univ. of Minnesota's Nutrition Data System for Research software. Study participants were 7837 U.S. Americans and 4025 Canadians, ≥2-y-old males and females. The main outcome measures were total dietary vitamin D intake, percent contribution of foods to total vitamin D intake, and vitamin D intake by cereal and breakfast consumption habits. ANOVA was used to determine differences in means or proportions by age and gender and according to breakfast consumption habits. Mean vitamin D intake ranged from 152 to 220 IU/d. Less than 2% of participants in all age groups from the United States and Canada met the 2011 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D from foods. Milk, meat, and fish were the top food sources for vitamin D for both Americans and Canadians. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal was a top 10 source of vitamin D for Americans but not Canadians. Vitamin D intake was higher with more frequent RTE cereal and breakfast consumption in both countries, largely attributable to greater milk intake.
Most U.S. Americans and Canadians do not meet the 2011 Inst. of Medicine recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin D for their age groups from foods. Increasing breakfast and cereal consumption may be a useful strategy to increase dietary vitamin D intake to help individuals meet the RDA for vitamin D, particularly by increasing milk intake. However, it is likely that additional food fortification or vitamin D supplementation is required to achieve the RDA.
"These results should not come as a surprise because the negative calcium balance in older and institutionalized adults is often the result of insufficiencies in both calcium and vitamin D. For example, community-dwelling French women aged 75–90 years had a mean daily calcium intake of just 569 mg and 39% had a serum vitamin D less than 30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL) . In another trial, 66% of institutionalized women had a daily calcium intake less than 800 mg and a serum vitamin D less than 30 nmol/L . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium and vitamin D supplements reverse secondary hyperparathyroidism and are widely prescribed to prevent osteoporotic fractures, with proven antifracture efficacy when targeted to individuals with documented insufficiencies. Men who should particularly be considered for calcium and vitamin D supplements include elderly or institutionalized individuals, patients with documented osteoporosis on antiresorptive or anabolic medication, and individuals receiving glucocorticoids. Benefits are most apparent when a daily dose of 1000-1200 mg calcium is complemented with 800 IU vitamin D. Compliance is the key to optimizing clinical efficacy. While (conventionally dosed) vitamin D has not been associated with safety concerns, recent meta-analytic data have provided evidence to suggest that calcium supplements (without coadministered vitamin D) may potentially be associated with cardiovascular risks.
Journal of Osteoporosis 08/2011; 2011:875249. DOI:10.4061/2011/875249
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