Distribution, biomagnification, and elimination of butyltin compound residues in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan
ABSTRACT Concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs) were determined in various body tissues of common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from the Lake Biwa, Japan. Elevated concentrations of butyltins were detected in the feathers of cormorants. Among other organs and tissues, butyltin levels were also higher in the kidney (290+/-150 ng/g) and liver (270+/-260 ng/g), ranging from 115 to 544 ng/g and 142 to 1007 ng/g (wet wt basis), respectively. The accumulation of BTs in cormorant bodies was in the order of MBT>DBT>TBT and their organ specific burdens were in the order of muscle>/=feathers>skin>liver>rest of the tissues and organs. The higher levels of BTs residues in feather suggested the excretion of about one fourth of their body burden during a complete molting cycle, which has been a natural detoxification mechanism in these birds. Based on the whole body concentrations of BTs in cormorants (42-160 ng/g wet wt) and fish (10-55 ng/g wet wt) biomagnification factors were assessed to be in the range of 1.1-4.1. To our knowledge, this is the first fundamental study to substantially indicate the contamination and kinetics of BTs in wild birds.
- SourceAvailable from: Mark A J Huijbregts
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- "Secondly, seasonal moulting may be an efficient elimination route of organotins. Feathers of cormorants may contain 20–30% of the total body-burden of butyltins (Guruge et al., 1996). Apparently feathers contain proteins that have a high affinity for tin. "
ABSTRACT: The bioaccumulation model OMEGA (optimal modelling for ecotoxicological applications) is used to explore accumulation of organotins in the Western Scheldt food chain, consisting of herbi-detritivores, primary and secondary carnivorous fish and a piscivorous bird. Organotins studied are tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) and the respective di- and mono-organotin metabolites. Empirical elimination rate constants are compared to model predictions for organic substances and metals. It is found that field bioaccumulation ratios are higher than predicted based on elimination kinetics relevant for organic compounds. The results indicate that uptake of organotins mainly occurs via hydrophobic mechanisms, whereas elimination may occur via metal-like kinetics. This results in very low elimination rates, which are comparable to model predictions for metals.Marine Environmental Research 07/2006; 61(5):511-30. DOI:10.1016/j.marenvres.2006.02.005 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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- "However, the long-term ecotoxicological effects of organotins on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems are still not well understood, particularly with respect to biomagnification in food webs (Guruge et al., 1996; Jak et al., 1998; Kannan et al., 1996; Kim et al., 1996; Stäb et al., 1996). TBT and TPT act via different modes of action. "
ABSTRACT: Contamination sites pose significant environmental hazards for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, groundwater and aquatic ecosystems. At severely contaminated sites, acute effects occur, but the core problem lies in long-term chronic effects. Ecotoxicological effects occur at all levels of biological organization, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Not only certain organisms may be affected, but the ecosystems as a whole, both terrestrial and aquatic, in its function and structure. Contaminants at large contaminated sites often share critical properties such as high acute and/or chronic toxicity, high environmental persistence, often high mobility leading to contamination of groundwater, and high lipophilicity leading to bioaccumulation in food webs. Contaminants present at polluted sites occur as mixtures, therefore interactions between individual compounds are of importance. The bioavailability is a key factor for ecotoxicological effects of contaminants. This is demonstrated by a case study on organotins. Organotins belong to the most toxic pollutants known so far for aquatic life. Widespread contamination of harbor sediments occurs globally due to the ongoing use of organotins in antifouling paints in large ships. In lake sediments, tributyl- and triphenyltin are very persistent and bioavailable to biota even after a long time. Bioavailability of these compounds is dependent on pH and organic matter. Organotins are accumulated in sediments, but remobilization occurs when contaminated sediments are disturbed and dredged. A key question in dealing with contaminated sites is the assessment and evaluation of the toxicity of contaminants to the environment. Usually, established OECD tests and whole effluent toxicity tests are performed for an ecotoxicological evaluation and for hazard assessment. However, these assays are often expensive, laborious and sometimes not sensitive enough. As a consequence, we have used fast and reliable in vitro systems such as fish cell lines for the evaluation of sediments and landfill leachates contaminated by polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PAH). Determination of cytotoxicity as a measure for acute toxicity, and induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) as a biomarker of exposure and toxicity were found to be important measures, which can be used for hazard and risk assessment. We have developed a concept for the ecotoxicological evaluation of PAH contamination based on induction equivalents, which can be applied for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. One of the key question and present gaps, however, includes the long-term chronic ecotoxicological effects on soil and aquatic biota, which are largely unknown.Toxicology 01/2005; 205(3):223-40. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2004.06.060 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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- "thick-billed murre) in polluted coastal areas. However, a higher capacity to metabolise BTs (Guruge et al., 1996~) or elimination through longterm moulting and egg-laying could result in lower accumulation in internal organs. Even though usage of TBT has been severely restricted in many developed countries, rapid growth of the economy and population in developing countries, like in Asia, may prompt new sources of many chemicals including BTs into the aquatic ecosystem. "
ABSTRACT: Concentrations of butyltin compounds were determined in the kidney and liver of various seabirds collected from Japan, Korea, the North Pacific Ocean and the southern Indian Ocean. These compounds were detected in most of the samples, which indicated widespread contamination in higher trophic aquatic animals even in remote areas. The highest mean residue concentrations of butyltins in the kidney (300 ng/g wet wt) and liver (280 ng/g wet wt) were in common cormorants from Lake Biwa, Japan. Laysan albatross from the North Pacific Ocean accumulated higher butyltin residues in the liver (43 ng/g wet wt) among open-ocean birds. Even though the number of samples analysed was small, it can be suggested that birds inhabiting inland to coastal areas had higher exposure to butyltins than those in the ocean. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting on butyltin pollution in seabirds in global terms.Marine Environmental Research 08/1997; 44(2):191-199. DOI:10.1016/S0141-1136(97)00001-9 · 2.33 Impact Factor