Gray matter deficits in young onset schizophrenia are independent of age of onset.
ABSTRACT This study examined whether the degree of brain dysmorphology observable in adulthood was related to onset age of schizophrenic symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired in 57 men with schizophrenia, whose age at MRI was 19-53 years, and whose symptom onset ranged from age 7 to 29 years; all were inpatients in a state hospital. Volumes of intracranial space, cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in lateral and third ventricles and cortical sulci were derived from MRI scans and corrected by regression analysis for variations attributable to age and head size, quantified in a control sample of healthy community volunteers. The schizophrenic patients had larger volumes of cortical and ventricular CSF and smaller volumes of cortical GM but not WM than age-matched controls, whether or not volumes were adjusted for head size and age norms. Age of onset did not correlate with any of the five age-adjusted brain measures. Neither current age, length of illness, nor symptom severity correlated with age-normalized volumes of cortical GM, sulcal CSF, or ventricular CSF. These observations are consistent with the theory that brain structure deficits 1) first develop prior to symptom onset (perhaps during the prenatal and/or early childhood process of GM development); 2) probably establish a vulnerability to subsequent dysfunctionality; but 3) are nonprogressive.
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ABSTRACT: Studies using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have provided strong evidence that patients with schizophrenia as a group have structural brain abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles and sulci as well as smaller cortical gray matter volumes. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the brain abnormalities found in schizophrenia could be distinguished from those seen in bipolar disorder. The MR scans of 23 patients with schizophrenia were compared to those of 17 healthy community volunteers and 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Images were processed using computer-based image processing techniques to generate quantitative measures of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter and white matter volumes. Compared to the community volunteers, the schizophrenia group had larger total CSF volumes while the bipolar group had larger lateral ventricles. Smaller cortical gray matter volumes were found in the schizophrenia group, but not in the bipolar group. The schizophrenia group had regional deficits in gray matter volumes in comparison with both the community volunteers and the bipolar group. These findings suggest that the brain tissue abnormalities found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be distinguishable using MR imaging.Schizophrenia Research 08/1997; 26(2):85-92. DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(97)00042-X · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This practice parameter reviews the literature on the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Recommendations are based on the limited research available, the adult literature, and clinical experience. Early-onset schizophrenia is diagnosed using the same criteria as in adults, and appears to be continuous with the adult form of the disorder. Noted characteristics of youth with schizophrenia include predominance in males, high rates of premorbid abnormalities, and often poor outcome. Differential diagnosis includes psychotic mood disorders, developmental disorders, organic conditions, and nonpsychotic emotional/behavioral disorders. Treatment strategies incorporate antipsychotic medications with psychoeducational, psychotherapeutic, and social and educational support programs. The advent of atypical antipsychotic agents has enhanced the potential for effective treatment. Key Words: schizophrenia, children, adolescents, psychosis.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 07/2001; 40(7). DOI:10.1097/00004583-200107001-00002 · 6.35 Impact Factor
Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie 01/2001; 69(3):105-115. DOI:10.1055/s-2001-12277 · 0.76 Impact Factor