Cremophor pharmacokinetics in patients receiving 3-, 6-, and 24-hour infusions of paclitaxel.

Division of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Impact Factor: 14.34). 10/1996; 88(18):1297-301. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/88.18.1297
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a new drug with efficacy against a variety of malignant tumors. The clinical formulation of paclitaxel contains 50% Cremophor EL, a polyethoxylated castor oil vehicle (carrier) that can reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein. Three-hour intravenous infusions of paclitaxel can yield end-of-infusion plasma Cremophor concentrations of 1 microL/mL or more, which are sufficient to reverse MDR in vitro by at least 50%. Despite extensive clinical use, the pharmacokinetics of Cremophor have not been described.
We studied the pharmacokinetics of Cremophor in patients with ovarian cancer who were undergoing treatment with paclitaxel to determine whether plasma Cremophor concentrations achieved during and following 3-, 6-, and 24-hour drug infusions were similar to those shown to modulate MDR in vitro.
Eleven patients with previously treated (i.e., with platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens) ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to receive one 3-hour, one 6-hour, and one 24-hour infusion of paclitaxel in varied sequences during their first three cycles of treatment with this drug. Blood samples were collected both during and following the three infusion periods, and Cremophor concentrations in these samples were measured by use of a bioassay based on the ability of Cremophor in plasma samples to reverse cellular resistance to daunorubicin in vitro.
Ten patients were treated with paclitaxel at a dose level of 175 mg/m2, and one patient was treated at a dose level of 135 mg/m2. At the 175-mg/m2 dose level, peak plasma Cremophor concentrations of 1 microL/mL or more were achieved in eight of 10 patients during both the 3-hour and the 6-hour infusions; with the 24-hour infusion, only one patient achieved a peak plasma Cremophor concentration of 1 microL/mL or more. The eight patients who achieved plasma Cremophor concentrations of 1 microL/mL during the 3-hour infusion were above this level 30 minutes into the infusion; the total time that the plasma concentration was greater than 1 microL/mL was 8.9 +/- 5.0 hours (mean +/- standard deviation; range, 4.1-15.6 hours). For the eight patients who achieved plasma Cremophor concentrations of 1 microL/mL during the 6-hour infusion, the total time that the concentration was greater than 1 microL/mL was 10.2 +/- 9.0 hours (range, 0.3-21.9 hours). The patient who received paclitaxel at a dose of 135 mg/m2 achieved a peak plasma Cremophor concentration of 1 microL/mL or more only during the 3-hour infusion.
Paclitaxel infusions of 3 and 6 hours can result in sustained plasma Cremophor concentrations sufficient for substantial reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated MDR in vitro. These plasma Cremophor concentrations are not achieved during 24-hour infusions of paclitaxel.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to address the question of whether acquired paclitaxel resistance is dependent upon whether it is given as a single brief exposure or as a long-term exposure. PX2 and PX24 were established from 2008 human ovarian cancer cells by 2-h single exposure or 24-h continuous exposure to paclitaxel. PX2 acquired paclitaxel resistance faster than PX24 by twofold. Drug resistant pattern was exposure-time dependent. In 2-h exposure, PX2 showed 53.86 ± 4.96 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) fold paclitaxel resistance while PX24 showed 9.51 ± 1.01 fold resistance (P = 0.002). In 24-h exposure, PX2 showed 2.31 ± 0.3 fold paclitaxel resistance while PX24 showed 28.17 ± 0.98 fold resistance (P = 0.040). PX2 and PX24 acquired cross-resistance to docetaxel and SN38 and the resistance degrees were significantly higher in PX2 than PX24. They displayed approximately twofold cisplatin collateral sensitivity. PX24 also displayed sensitivity to other platinum drugs, oxaliplatin and ZD0473, whereas PX2 acquired significant resistance to both of them. Although differential tubulin-isotype expressions were noted among 2008, PX2 and PX24, they were not significant. In electron microscopy, prominent, densely stained lysosomes were observed more in the resistant cells than 2008. Two independent, exposure-time dependent paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell lines were established. Understanding the characteristics of the differential resistance pattern could be clinically beneficial for the selection of second line chemotherapy for relapsed ovarian cancer.
    Human Cell 11/2010; 23(4):156-63. · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticulate paclitaxel carriers have entered clinical evaluation as alternatives to the Cremophor-based standard Taxol(®) (Cre-pac). Their pharmacokinetics (PK) is complex, and factors influencing their pharmacodynamics (PD) are poorly understood. We aimed to develop a unified quantitative model for 4 paclitaxel carriers that captures systems-level PK, predicts micro-scale PK processes, and permits correlations between carrier properties and observed PD. Data consisting of 54 PK profiles and 574 observations were extracted from 20 clinical studies investigating Cre-pac, albumin-(A-pac), liposome-(L-pac), and tocopherol-(T-pac) nanocarriers. A population-PK approach was used for data analysis. All datasets were simultaneously fitted to produce a unified model. Model-based simulations explored relationships between predicted PK and myelosuppression for each formulation. The final model employed nonlinear drug-binding mechanisms to describe Cre-pac and a delayed-release model for A-pac, L-pac, and T-pac. Estimated drug-release rate constants (h(-1)): Cre-pac (5.19), L-pac (1.26), A-pac (0.72), T-pac (0.74). Simulations of equivalent dosing schemes ranked neutropenia severity (highest to lowest): T-pac~Cre-pac>L-pac~A-pac and predicted remarkably well the clinically-observed relationships between neutropenia and free drug exposure relative to a threshold concentration. Paclitaxel disposition was well-described for all formulations. The derived model predicts toxicodynamics of diverse paclitaxel carriers.
    Pharmaceutical Research 05/2012; 29(10):2833-44. · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer has historically proven resistant to anticancer agents. On the one hand, drugs might be more efficient if higher levels could be achieved at the tumor site rather than the normal tissues. On the other hand, the thick stroma and the relative absence of abundant vessels may account at least partially for the failure of successive clinical trials to demonstrate effective treatments in this type of malignancy. In this context, the development and testing in clinical trials of treatment strategies that aim to optimize drug delivery is an important target in improving the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer.
    rapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology, The 09/2012; 4(5):271-9.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014