Should we still use the Harris and Benedict equations?
ABSTRACT Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is commonly predicted using the Harris-Benedict (HB) equations, but an overestimation of 10% to 15% is normally found. More recent studies have proposed equations with a better predictive value. In this study, we explore the relationship between measured RMR and HB in 67 healthy volunteers and in a data set from the literature and compared measured RMR with six more recent equations. Mean differences between RMR and HB were 21%, 12%, 10%, and 4% for the lowest to the highest RMR quartile, respectively, and 20%, 8%, 6%, and -4% for Owen's subjects. Among the six recent equations, only the World Health Organization (WHO) equations predicted RMR within 10% in 100% of the cases. Our results suggest that overestimation of RMR by HB is not a homogenous finding but is inversely related to RMR. This may have important implications for predicting RMR in women and in patients with diminished lean body mass. In addition, the WHO equations appear more precise than the HB equations.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lilian De Jonge, Sep 19, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Andreas Hahn
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- "BMR can be predicted by means of different equations. The Harris–Benedict equation (1919) is said to overestimate BMR by 10–15% (Daly et al, 1985; Garrel et al, 1996), while the Shofield and the FAO/WHO/UNU equation is said to be more precise (Garrel et al, 1996). In this study, the FAO/WHO/UNU equation (FAO/WHO/UNU expert Consultation , 1985, including only weight) was used to calculate BMR. "
ABSTRACT: Evaluation of dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of German vegans. Cross-sectional study. Germany. Subjects were recruited through journal advertisements. Of 868 volunteers, only 154 participated in all study segments (pre- and main questionnaire, two 9-day food frequency questionnaires, blood sampling) and fulfilled the following study criteria: vegan dietary intake at least 1 year prior to study start, minimum age of 18 y, no pregnancy or childbirth during the last 12 months. No interventions. All the 154 subjects had a comparatively low BMI (median 21.2 kg/m(2)), with an extremely low mean consumption of alcohol (0.77+/-3.14 g/day) and tobacco (96.8% were nonsmokers). Mean energy intake (total collective: 8.23+/-2.77 MJ) was higher in strict vegans than in moderate ones. Mean carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes in proportion to energy (total collective: 57.1:29.7:11.6%) agreed with current recommendations. Recommended intakes for vitamins and minerals were attained through diet, except for calcium (median intake: 81.1% of recommendation), iodine (median: 40.6%), and cobalamin (median: 8.8%). For the male subgroup, the intake of a small amount of food of animal origin improved vitamin and mineral nutrient densities (except for zinc), whereas this was not the case for the female subgroup (except for calcium). In order to reach favourable vitamin and mineral intakes, vegans should consider taking supplements containing riboflavin, cobalamin, calcium, and iodine. Intake of total energy and protein should also be improved.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2003; 57(8):947-55. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601629 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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- ". These formulas were used due to their higher ability of predicting the actual resting metabolic rate by comparison with the Harris and Benedict formula . Height was copied from the patient's identity card and weight was determined with a Jofrew floor scale. "
ABSTRACT: To investigate in cancer patients referred for radiotherapy (RT): (1) quality of life (QoL), nutritional status and nutrient intake, at the onset and at the end of RT; (2) whether individualised nutritional counselling, despite symptoms, was able to enhance nutrient intake over time and whether the latter influenced the patient's QoL; and (3) which symptoms may anticipate poorer QoL and/or reduced nutritional intake. One hundred and twenty-five patients with tumours of the head-neck/gastrointestinal tract (high-risk: HR), prostate, breast, lung, brain, gallbladder, uterus (low-risk: LR) were evaluated before and at the end of RT. Nutritional status was evaluated by Ottery's Subjective Global Assessment, nutritional intake by a 24-h recall food questionnaire and QoL by two instruments: EUROQOL and the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30. Baseline malnutrition was prevalent in HR vs. LR (P=0.02); nutritional intake was associated with nutritional status (P=0.007); the latter did not change significantly during RT. In LR, baseline energy intake was higher than EER (P=0.001), and higher than HR' intake (P=0.002); the latter increased (P<0.03), in spite of symptom increase anew and/or in severity (P=0.0001). According to both instruments, QoL was always better in LR vs. HR (P=0.01); at the end of RT, QoL improvement in HR was correlated with increased nutritional intake (P=0.001), both remained stable in LR. Individualised nutritional counselling accounting for nutritional status and clinical condition, was able to improve nutritional intake and patients' QoL, despite self-reported symptoms.Radiotherapy and Oncology 05/2003; 67(2):213-20. DOI:10.1016/S0167-8140(03)00040-9 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis, we investigated the inter-relationships and relative contributions of disease, haemodialysis and of nutrition related factors on the patients' Quality of Life. Collected data in 60 adult patients comprised: co-morbidities (multiple medicines, other chronic diseases), duration of renal failure and of haemodialysis (in months), % weight loss since haemodialysis, nutrient intake derived from diet history analysis (DIETPLAN5 2003, UK). The EuroQoL instrument that includes 5 dimensions, mobility, self-care, activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression, and an overall health visual analogue scale evaluated QoL. Estimates of effect size attributed to each variable included in the general linear model revealed that 47% of patients' mobility/self-care scores were worsened by deficient protein/energy intake and 30% by weight loss =10%. Poor performance of usual activities was attributed in 45% to duration of haemodialysis and of disease, 70% to protein/energy/vitamin B12/zinc/iron deficits, and 20% to weight loss =10%. Pain/discomfort were worsened in 45% by the duration of haemodialysis and of disease, and in 15% by co-morbidities. Higher anxiety/depression were related in 43% to protein/energy/selenium & vitamin C deficits, in 40% to the duration of haemodialysis and of disease, in 10% to weight loss =10%, and in 3% to co-morbidities. Likewise, 47% of poor overall health was determined by protein/energy/vitamin B12/ zinc/selenium & vitamin C deficits, 25% by weight loss =10%, 10% by disease duration, and 7% by co-morbidities. Protein, antioxidants and key micronutrients involved in protein metabolism, did exert a major effect on patients' Quality of Life. Given the prevalence of nutrient deficits, the ensuing impaired functional capacity is likely to compromise QoL, timely nutrition is thus warranted.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 21(2):139-44. · 1.25 Impact Factor