Racial differences in a prostate cancer screening study.
ABSTRACT We attempted to determine whether black men have a higher prostate cancer prevalence and more advanced disease.
We screened 17,157 white and 804 black men 50 years old or older by serum prostate specific antigen measurement and digital rectal examination. We recommended biopsy when either test was suspicious.
Black men had a higher prevalence of elevated prostate specific antigen (13.1 versus 8.9%) and cancer (5.1 versus 3.2%) than white men, and a higher prevalence of clinically but not pathologically advanced cancer. Fewer black men in lower income zip codes complied with recommendations for biopsy.
In our screening study black men had a higher prevalence of detectable cancer. However, unlike in clinical studies there was no striking racial difference in advanced cancer stage at diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies revealed that there are variations in the geographic and ethnic distribution of cancer of the prostate (CaP) gland. This cancer varies dramatically between being very common in black American men, to rare in Asian and Chinese men. Genetic, familial predisposition and environmental factors in addition to methods of cancer detection and reporting contribute to these variations. Prostate cancer is the ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world yet it ranks first in the United States of America (USA) where resources allow large epidemiological studies. The health policy makers take major decisions such as mass population screening according to data derived from such studies that include information on disease specific mortality rates and incidence rates for each of the ethnic sub-populations living in the USA. Until now, we do not have similar information in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); therefore, policy decisions should consider the possibility of the difference in situations since genetic, familial and environmental conditions are different. Our current local data, although little, indicates that prostate cancer occurs at a lower incidence rate than western countries. The objective of this article is to provide all the available information on the different aspects of CaP gland in KSA. A second more important objective is to attract the attention of the future expectations that need preparation since the possibility of disease prevention does exist.Saudi medical journal 07/2003; 24(6):573-81. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer that has become the sixth leading cause of mortality in both the developed and developing countries. Accumulating evidence showed a number of genes with aberrant DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of PCa. Here, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the contribution of aberrantly methylated genes to the risk of PCa. Relevant methylation studies were retrieved from PubMed and Wanfang literature databases. In the meta-analysis, Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each methylation event under appropriate models. A total of 594 publications were initially retrieved from PubMed and Wanfang literature database. After a three-step filtration, we harvested 39 case-control articles investigating the role of gene methylation in the prediction of PCa risk. Among the 31 genes involved, 24 genes were shown to be significantly hypermethylated in the PCa patients. Our meta-analyses identified strong associations of four aberrantly methylated genes (GSTP1, RASSF1, p16, and RARB) with PCa. Further research is needed to strengthen our findings in the future.Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND It is not yet known whether screening for the detection of early prostate carcinoma will reduce mortality rates. However, data are available to assess intermediate outcomes from screening, including the performance characteristics of the screening tests and shifts in disease stage.METHODS Approximately 30,000 community volunteers (mean age 60 years; <5% nonwhite) were enrolled in 1 of 3 screening studies. Volunteers were screened with PSA or PSA in combination with digital rectal examination at 6-month intervals, and prostatic biopsy was recommended for those with results suspicious for cancer. Based on a first-time screen, the current study reports screening test results, the proportion of men recommended to undergo biopsy, the proportion who actually underwent biopsy, and the carcinoma detection rates for each study, stratified by initial PSA level. The authors also report the pathologic features of screen-detected carcinomas for a subset of men who underwent radical prostatectomy and for whom complete embedding and microscopic examination of the surgical specimen was performed.RESULTSApproximately 10% of the volunteers had PSA levels >4.0 ng/mL and 3-10% had digital rectal examination results suspicious for cancer. Overall, 9-20% of volunteers were recommended to undergo biopsy and 8-13% actually underwent the procedure. The positive predictive value for carcinoma detection ranged from 25-33% across studies. In the subset of men for whom surgical specimens were completely embedded, the majority of tumors detected had the clinicopathologic features of significant carcinoma (<10% possibly harmless).CONCLUSIONS The intermediate outcomes for screening with PSA and/or PSA in combination with digital rectal examination are encouraging. In community volunteers these screening tests demonstrated reasonable positive predictive value and detected carcinomas at an earlier stage. The majority of screen-detected tumors had the pathologic characteristics of medically significant carcinoma. Cancer 1997; 80:1852-6. © 1997 American Cancer Society.Cancer 11/2000; 80(9):1852 - 1856. · 5.20 Impact Factor