Pressure controlled preparation of the saphenous vein with papaverine for aortocoronary venous bypass.
ABSTRACT In 21 patients intraoperatively receiving coronary revascularization, segments of the saphenous vein were prepared for aortocoronary bypass. Postoperatively, the endothelial intima was subjected to electron microscopy. Venous segments in which an intraluminal mean pressure of 263 mmHg +/- 52 mmHg had been measured during preparation were compared with venous segments that had been explanted with the aid of a venous protection bulldog and with pharmacological treatment through papaverine.
Those segments of high-pressure distension that had not been protected showed intimal damage with erythrocytes and thrombocytes. On the other hand, venous segments with low-pressure distension that had been protected in the described way during harvesting appeared similar to native veins.
We conclude that during the preparation of the saphenous vein for aortocoronary bypass surgery, the application of papaverine and the use of the venous protection bulldog clamp is effective in preventing pressure damage during preparation of the vein.
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ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that suboptimal preparation of saphenous veins may adversely affect early patency of aorta-coronary artery bypass grafts, a nonrandomized prospective study was undertaken comparing two methods of saphenous vein preparation prior to grafting. Forty recatheterizations were performed during the postoperative hospital stay (approximately 10 days) in two groups of asymptomatic patients who had undergone isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Veins from patients in Group I were bathed in autologous, heparinized blood at 20 degrees C and distended to 80 mm Hg, prior to grafting. The veins from Group II patients were prepared in an identical manner, except that the bathing solution consisted of heparinized electrolyte solution with added papaverine (0.6 mg/lg). Segments of vein from each group were obtained prior to grafting and preserved in 3% glutaraldehyde for subsequent electron microscopic studies. Operative technique in both groups of patients was identical and all procedures were performed by the same surgeons. Comparison of patients in Group I and II revealed no significant difference in the number of diseased vessels per patient (3.1 versus 3.4), number of grafts per patient (2.9 versus 2.9), native vessel diameter (1.9 versus 1.7 mm), and postoperative graft flows (65 versus 68 cc/min). However, early postoperative graft patency in Group II patients was 93% versus 80% in patients in Group I (p less thn 0.01). Electron microscopic analysis revealed severe spasm of venous smooth muscle in the blood-stored veins causing intraluminal smooth muscle cell cytoplasmic protrusions with resultant endothelial separation and desquamation. Formation of fibrin-platelet microaggregates was common. These findings were not present in the solution-treated veins. In view of these ultrastructural findings, and the highly significant difference in patency rates, we have abandoned all blood storage techniques and now prepare saphenous veins by soaking them in a clear bathing medium with added heparin and papaverine. Long-term follow-up of these patients is currently in progress and may reveal even more dramatic results than we have heretofore observed.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 06/1982; 83(5):686-700. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: From Feb. 1, 1972, to Jan. 30, 1984, 1,000 patients had isolated coronary bypass with at least one internal mammary artery, and 103 of them had bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. There were 1,395 associated vein grafts and 1,158 internal mammary artery anastomoses, for a total of 2,556 grafts (2.5 per patient). Patients were followed up for 1 to 12 years (mean 6.3 years) and 77 patients were lost to follow-up at a mean of 4.0 years. Operative mortality was 1.4%, with 11 of 14 deaths in the first 240 patients (4.6%) and eight of 14 in the 103 patients with bilateral internal mammary artery grafts. There were 93 late deaths, with an actuarial survival rate of 93% at 5 years and 84% at 10 years. Angina occurred at a mean rate of 6.2% +/- 1.2% per year. Perioperative infarction was detected in 37 patients (3.7%). Late infarction occurred in 75 patients, for a mean rate of 1.5% +/- 0.3% per year. Reoperation (or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) was necessary in 35 patients, for a mean rate of 0.85% +/- 0.28% per year. Graft patency was assessed by 1,029 follow-up catheterizations in 519 patients. The patency rate of the left internal mammary artery was 96.4% at 1 year, 88.1% at 5 years, and 88.1% at 10 years. That of the right internal mammary artery was 92.8% (p = NS) at 1 year, 84.6% (p = NS) at 5 years, and at 10 years the numbers were too small to be meaningful. Comparison of patency rates for all internal mammary artery grafts with vein grafts gave 1 year graft patency rates of 95.7% versus 93.4% (p less than 0.025), 5 year rates of 87.9% versus 74.0% (p less than 0.001), and 10 year rates of 83.0% versus 41.0% (p less than 0.001). Included in these patency data are 20 free internal mammary artery grafts; 16 were studied (mean 2.3 years) and 12 of these 16 (75%) were patent. Of the 58 sequential internal mammary artery grafts, 18 were studied by catheterization (mean interval 2.0 years); 35 of 36 anastomoses were patent and one end-to-side anastomosis was closed. Morbidity and mortality for patients having internal mammary artery grafting are comparable to those of patients having saphenous vein bypass only. The demonstrated superior patency for internal mammary artery grafts supports the routine use of bilateral internal mammary artery grafting.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 12/1985; 90(5):668-75. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We compared patients who received an internal-mammary-artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery alone or combined with one or more saphenous-vein grafts (n = 2306) with patients who had only saphenous-vein bypass grafts (n = 3625). The 10-year actuarial survival rate among the group receiving the internal-mammary-artery graft, as compared with the group who received the vein grafts (exclusive of hospital deaths), was 93.4 percent versus 88.0 percent (P = 0.05) for those with one-vessel disease; 90.0 percent versus 79.5 percent (P less than 0.0001) for those with two-vessel disease; and 82.6 percent versus 71.0 percent (P less than 0.0001) for those with three-vessel disease. After an adjustment for demographic and clinical differences by Cox multivariate analysis, we found that patients who had only vein grafts had a 1.61 times greater risk of death throughout the 10 years, as compared with those who received an internal-mammary-artery graft. In addition, patients who received only vein grafts had 1.41 times the risk of late myocardial infarction (P less than 0.0001), 1.25 times the risk of hospitalization for cardiac events (P less than 0.0001), 2.00 times the risk of cardiac reoperation (P less than 0.0001), and 1.27 times the risk of all late cardiac events (P less than 0.0001), as compared with patients who received internal-mammary-artery grafts. Internal-mammary-artery grafting for lesions of the anterior descending coronary artery is preferable whenever indicated and technically feasible.New England Journal of Medicine 02/1986; 314(1):1-6. · 51.66 Impact Factor