"Approximately 30% of airborne particulates are small enough (≤ 5 μm) to reach the distal airways . Pascual et al  demonstrated that steam emissions from boiling salmon contained allergenic proteins shared with raw and boiled salmon meat. Occupational asthma associated with inhalation of crustaceans is more prevalent than to bony fish and molluscs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert(R) identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization.
"The reason for the persistence of specific IgE could be the occurrence of cross-reacting allergens in other food ingested by the patient or inhalation of seafood aerosols. It has been suggested that accidental exposures to cooking aerosols at home or in the workplace could elicit clinical symptoms, which could result in delaying the development of tolerance  . Dominguez and coworkers also came to a similar conclusion for patients who displayed allergic symptoms only by handling and touching fish . "
"Cod (Gadus Callarias) allergen M = Gad d1 (Aas, 1987) Salmon (Salmo salar): Sal s1 (Lindströ m et al., 1996) Calcium-binding proteins predominantly in white muscle of lower vertebrates 12 kDa; pI 4.75; single glucose to Cys 18 See also Bernhisel-Broadbent et al., 1992a,b; Pascual et al., 1996 Milk i lactoglobulin Member of the ligand-binding calycins (or lipocalins) (Flower et al., 1993), related to retinol-binding protein and some important mammalian allergens (e.g. rodent urinary protein, dog allergens Can f1 and Can f2) Dimer (2×21 kDa); pI 5.2 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A food allergen may be defined as a substance that reacts with IgE antibodies, induces allergic sensitisation or induces allergic reactions. Some allergens only induce allergic sensitisation but do not provoke symptoms, while others bind IgE but do not induce mast cell degranulation. There is no common structure that can predict whether a given antigen may be a strong food allergen. A complete food allergen, e.g. fish parvalbumin, is capable of stimulating the immune system to produce IgE antibodies, and degranulate mast cells upon subsequent contact. The reason(s) for why some patients with IgE to ovalbumin tolerate eggs, and why some react on one occasion but not on another, are mostly unclear, but may be related to changes in gut permeability induced by other food substances or by gastro-intestinal inflammation prior to the allergen contact. IgE antibodies to fruit or vegetables often show cross-reactivity, due to carbohydrate structures. These cross-reactive glycans have been designated cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD). Anti-CCD antibodies are highly cross-reactive. The antibodies do not have clinical significant because CCD-containing foods are usually well-tolerated by patients with IgE antibodies to CCD. These IgE antibodies may cause confusion in relation to allergy diagnosis.
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