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Oncostatin M (OSM) stimulates resorption and inhibits synthesis of proteoglycan in porcine articular cartilage explants

Department of Rheumatic Diseases, Royal Perth Hospital, Australia.
Cytokine (Impact Factor: 2.87). 07/1996; 8(6):495-500. DOI: 10.1006/cyto.1996.0067
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ABSTRACT Oncostatin M (OSM) is structurally and functionally similar to leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 11 (IL-11) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). We have previously shown that LIF stimulates proteoglycan release and suppresses proteoglycan synthesis in pig and goat cartilage explants. The aim of this study was to determine whether OSM and related cytokines influence proteoglycan metabolism in pig cartilage explants. Slices of pig articular cartilage were incubated for 6 days in serum free DMEM with or without cytokines. The total proteoglycan content in papain digested cartilage explants and medium was determined by the 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue method. Cytokine activity was assessed by determining the percentage release of total proteoglycan. To evaluate proteoglycan synthesis, cartilage was cultured for 48 h under the same conditions and in the final 6 h the tissue was cultured in sulphate free DMEM containing 35SO4. The radioactivity in the medium and tissue was determined in cetylpyridinium chloride precipitates. Biosynthetic activity was expressed as DPM per mg wet weight of cartilage. Dose dependent stimulation of proteoglycan release and suppression of proteoglycan synthesis were observed with rhOSM. IL-6, IL-11 and CNTF also inhibited proteoglycan synthesis in a dose dependent manner but the degree of inhibition was less than that for OSM and these cytokines had no significant effect on proteoglycan release. New biological effects have been identified for OSM and the related cytokines CNTF and IL-11. All three of these cytokines, like LIF and IL-6, suppress proteoglycan synthesis in pig cartilage explants. This common effect suggests that the gp130 subunit of the receptors for these cytokines may represent a common signalling pathway whereby proteoglycan synthesis is regulated. Whilst OSM and LIF stimulate proteoglycan catabolism; IL-6 IL-11 and OSM do not. Thus these effects are not always coupled and activation of gp130 alone may not be a sufficient signal for proteoglycan catabolism.

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    ABSTRACT: Oncostatin M (OSM) is an interleukin-6-like inflammatory cytokine reported to play a role in a number of pathological processes including cancer. Full-length OSM is expressed as a 26 kDa protein that can be proteolytically processed into 24 kDa and 22 kDa forms via removal of C-terminal peptides. In this study, we examined both the ability of OSM to bind to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the activity of immobilized OSM on human breast carcinoma cells. OSM was observed to bind to ECM proteins collagen types I and XI, laminin, and fibronectin in a pH-dependent fashion, suggesting a role for electrostatic bonds that involves charged amino acids of both the ECM and OSM. The C-terminal extensions of 24 kDa and 26 kDa OSM, which contains six and thirteen basic amino acids, respectively, enhanced electrostatic binding to ECM at pH 6.5–7.5 when compared to 22 kDa OSM. The highest levels of OSM binding to ECM, though, were observed at acidic pH 5.5, where all forms of OSM bound to ECM proteins to a similar extent. This indicates additional electrostatic binding properties independent of the OSM C-terminal extensions. The reducing agent dithiothreitol also inhibited the binding of OSM to ECM suggesting a role for disulfide bonds in OSM immobilization. OSM immobilized to ECM was protected from cleavage by tumor-associated proteases and maintained activity following incubation at acidic pH for extended periods of time. Importantly, immobilized OSM remained biologically active and was able to induce and sustain the phosphorylation of STAT3 in T47D and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells over prolonged periods, as well as increase levels of STAT1 and STAT3 protein expression. Immobilized OSM also induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition-associated morphological changes in T47D cells. Taken together, these data indicate that OSM binds to ECM in a bioactive state that may have important implications for the development of chronic inflammation and tumor metastasis.
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