Oncostatin M (OSM) is structurally and functionally similar to leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 11 (IL-11) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). We have previously shown that LIF stimulates proteoglycan release and suppresses proteoglycan synthesis in pig and goat cartilage explants. The aim of this study was to determine whether OSM and related cytokines influence proteoglycan metabolism in pig cartilage explants. Slices of pig articular cartilage were incubated for 6 days in serum free DMEM with or without cytokines. The total proteoglycan content in papain digested cartilage explants and medium was determined by the 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue method. Cytokine activity was assessed by determining the percentage release of total proteoglycan. To evaluate proteoglycan synthesis, cartilage was cultured for 48 h under the same conditions and in the final 6 h the tissue was cultured in sulphate free DMEM containing 35SO4. The radioactivity in the medium and tissue was determined in cetylpyridinium chloride precipitates. Biosynthetic activity was expressed as DPM per mg wet weight of cartilage. Dose dependent stimulation of proteoglycan release and suppression of proteoglycan synthesis were observed with rhOSM. IL-6, IL-11 and CNTF also inhibited proteoglycan synthesis in a dose dependent manner but the degree of inhibition was less than that for OSM and these cytokines had no significant effect on proteoglycan release. New biological effects have been identified for OSM and the related cytokines CNTF and IL-11. All three of these cytokines, like LIF and IL-6, suppress proteoglycan synthesis in pig cartilage explants. This common effect suggests that the gp130 subunit of the receptors for these cytokines may represent a common signalling pathway whereby proteoglycan synthesis is regulated. Whilst OSM and LIF stimulate proteoglycan catabolism; IL-6 IL-11 and OSM do not. Thus these effects are not always coupled and activation of gp130 alone may not be a sufficient signal for proteoglycan catabolism.
"OSM regulates proteolysis and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover via the induction of cysteine and aspartic proteases, as well as metalloproteinases   . In addition to its role in the inflammatory process associated with tumor progression , OSM drives other pathological conditions involving chronic inflammation including arthritis     , Alzheimer's disease    and atherosclerosis . The importance of inflammation in cancer is well established, since patients suffering from chronic inflammatory conditions such as pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, prostatitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are more prone to develop cancer in affected tissues [25– 28]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncostatin M (OSM) is an interleukin-6-like inflammatory cytokine reported to play a role in a number of pathological processes including cancer. Full-length OSM is expressed as a 26 kDa protein that can be proteolytically processed into 24 kDa and 22 kDa forms via removal of C-terminal peptides. In this study, we examined both the ability of OSM to bind to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the activity of immobilized OSM on human breast carcinoma cells. OSM was observed to bind to ECM proteins collagen types I and XI, laminin, and fibronectin in a pH-dependent fashion, suggesting a role for electrostatic bonds that involves charged amino acids of both the ECM and OSM. The C-terminal extensions of 24 kDa and 26 kDa OSM, which contains six and thirteen basic amino acids, respectively, enhanced electrostatic binding to ECM at pH 6.5–7.5 when compared to 22 kDa OSM. The highest levels of OSM binding to ECM, though, were observed at acidic pH 5.5, where all forms of OSM bound to ECM proteins to a similar extent. This indicates additional electrostatic binding properties independent of the OSM C-terminal extensions. The reducing agent dithiothreitol also inhibited the binding of OSM to ECM suggesting a role for disulfide bonds in OSM immobilization. OSM immobilized to ECM was protected from cleavage by tumor-associated proteases and maintained activity following incubation at acidic pH for extended periods of time. Importantly, immobilized OSM remained biologically active and was able to induce and sustain the phosphorylation of STAT3 in T47D and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells over prolonged periods, as well as increase levels of STAT1 and STAT3 protein expression. Immobilized OSM also induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition-associated morphological changes in T47D cells. Taken together, these data indicate that OSM binds to ECM in a bioactive state that may have important implications for the development of chronic inflammation and tumor metastasis.
"The results found here are partly in contrast to the previously described reduction of cartilage matrix gene expression and inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis [37-39,59]. Although the latter two effects of IL-6 can be seen as inhibitory, inhibition of synthesis can still be accompanied by a lack of net change in proteoglycan content if its deposition is increased. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
This study aimed to determine whether, as in osteoarthritis, increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are present in the synovial fluid of patients with symptomatic cartilage defects and whether this IL-6 affects cartilage regeneration as well as the cartilage in the degenerated knee.
IL-6 concentrations were determined by ELISA in synovial fluid and in conditioned media of chondrocytes regenerating cartilage. Chondrocytes were obtained from donors with symptomatic cartilage defects, healthy and osteoarthritic donors. The effect of IL-6 on cartilage regeneration and on metabolism of the resident cartilage in the knee was studied by both inhibition of endogenous IL-6 and addition of IL-6, in a regeneration model and in osteoarthritic explants in the presence of synovial fluid, respectively. Readout parameters were DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and release. Differences between controls and IL-6 blocked or supplemented samples were determined by univariate analysis of variance using a randomized block design.
Synovial fluid of patients with symptomatic cartilage defects contained more IL-6 than synovial fluid of healthy donors (P = 0.001) and did not differ from osteoarthritic donors. IL-6 production of osteoarthritic chondrocytes during cartilage regeneration was higher than that of healthy and defect chondrocytes (P < 0.001). Adding IL-6 increased GAG production by healthy chondrocytes and decreased GAG release by osteoarthritic chondrocytes (P < 0.05). Inhibition of IL-6 present in osteoarthritic synovial fluid showed a trend towards decreased GAG content of the explants (P = 0.06).
Our results support a modest anabolic role for IL-6 in cartilage matrix production. Targeting multiple cytokines, including IL-6, may be effective in improving cartilage repair in symptomatic cartilage defects and osteoarthritis.
"IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor, which both belong to the same family of cytokines, are known to participate substantively in the pathogenesis of murine models of arthritis as well as RA. In fact, they contribute to cartilage degradation by inducing proteoglycan resorption and inhibiting proteoglycan synthesis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) play a major role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by secreting effector molecules that promote inflammation and joint destruction. How these cells become and remain activated is still elusive. Both genetic and environmental factors probably play a role in transforming FLSs into inflammatory matrix-degrading cells. As bacterial products have been detected in the joint and shown to trigger joint inflammation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether a bacterial ligand of integrin alpha5beta1, protein I/II, could contribute to the aggressive behavior of RA FLSs. Protein I/II is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) isolated from oral streptococci that have been identified in the joints of RA patients. The response of RA and osteoarthritis FLSs to protein I/II was analyzed using human cancer cDNA expression arrays. RT-PCR and pro-MMP-3 (pro-matrix metalloproteinase) assays were then performed to confirm the up-regulation of gene expression. Protein I/II modulated about 6% of all profiled genes. Three of these, those encoding IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, and MMP-3, showed a high expression level in all RA FLSs tested, whereas the expression of genes encoding other members of the cytokine or MMP-family was not affected. Furthermore, the up-regulation of MMP-3 gene expression was followed by an increase of pro-MMP-3 release. The expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 and fibroblast growth factor-5 was also up-regulated, although the expression levels were lower. Only one gene, that for insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4, was down-regulated in all RA FLSs. In contrast, in osteoarthritis FLSs only one gene, that for IL-6, was modulated. These results suggest that a bacterial ligand of integrin alpha5beta1 may contribute to the aggressive behavior of RA FLSs by inducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a cartilage-degrading enzyme, such as IL-6 and MMP-3, respectively.
David K Simon, Tanya Simuni, Jordan Elm, Joanne Clark-Matott, Allison K Graebner, Liana Baker, Susan R Dunlop, Marina Emborg, Cornelia Kamp, John C Morgan, G Webster Ross, Saloni Sharma, Bernard Ravina
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