Article

The effect of sex education on adolescents' use of condoms: applying the Solomon four-group design.

Institute of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.
Health education quarterly 03/1996; 23(1):34-47. DOI: 10.1177/109019819602300103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A school-based sex education program was developed in order to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. A Solomon four-group design, with random assignment to the different conditions, was used to evaluate an intervention based on cognitive social learning theory and social influence theory. The main goal of the intervention was to increase use of condoms. A stratified sample of 124 classes (2,411 students) was drawn at random from all the upper secondary schools (high schools/colleges) in one county in Norway. The results indicate a consistent interaction between pretest and intervention, which seems to have an effect on condom use. Pretest or intervention alone did not contribute to this effect. The interaction effect appeared among the students with few sexual partners. Several possible explanations to the observed interaction effect and the implication for future interventions are discussed.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Ingela Lundin Kvalem, Jun 16, 2014
5 Followers
 · 
367 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective condom use can prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and methodological appraisal of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions to promote effective condom use. We searched for all RCTs of interventions to promote effective condom use using the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trials register (Oct 2006), CENTRAL (Issue 4, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2006), EMBASE (1974 to Oct 2006), LILACS (1982 to Oct 2006), IBSS (1951 to Oct 2006) and Psychinfo (1996 to Oct 2006). We extracted data on allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, loss to follow-up and measures of effect. Effect estimates were calculated. We identified 139 trials. Seven out of ten trials reported reductions in 'any STI' with five statistically significant results. Three out of four trials reported reductions in pregnancy, although none was statistically significant. Only four trials met all the quality criteria. Trials reported a median of 11 (IQR 7-17) outcome measures. Few trials used the same outcome measure. Altogether, 10 trials (7%) used the outcome 'any STI', 4 (3%) self-reported pregnancy and 22 (16%) used 'condom use at last sex'. The results are generally consistent with modest benefits but there is considerable potential for bias due to poor trial quality. Because of the low proportion of trials using the same outcome the potential for bias from selective reporting of outcomes is considerable. Despite the public health importance of increasing condom use there is little reliable evidence on the effectiveness of condom promotion interventions.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 10/2009; 65(2):100-10. DOI:10.1136/jech.2008.085456 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female, high‐school adolescents. Regression analyses revealed that earlier learning from most sources and more learning from schools about various sexual topics, including the importance of using birth control and consequences of teen pregnancy, were generally significantly predictive of less frequent oral sex and sexual intercourse. Other sources of sex education (peers, media, other adults) seemed to be less important in influencing outcomes. Ethnic/racial and gender variations also resulted.
    Educational Review 02/2005; 57(1):37-54. DOI:10.1080/0013191042000274178 · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an intervention designed to prevent unwanted preg-nancy in adolescents. A stratified sample of 74 compulsory schools was drawn at random from all compulsory schools in the county of Nordland in northern Norway. Of these 54 schools were willing to participate. The participating schools were assigned to four different groups according to a Solomon four-group design. A total of 1183 pupils gave their informed consent for participation. For the intervention, a textbook in sex education was developed and handed out to pupils and teachers participating in the intervention groups. Data collections were carried out 1999–2001. The results from this study stem from data collected at post-test 1. The individual was used as unit of analysis. Among adolescents who made their coital debut between the pre-test and post-test 1, more of those in the intervention group than in the pre-test group reported use of contraception during first sexual intercourse. No other statistically significant effect of the intervention was found. The reason may be biased drop-out.