Sex-steroid hormone receptors in human medullary thyroid carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Three complementary techniques were used to detect sex-steroid hormone receptors in tumor tissues from seven patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma: steroid binding analysis, enzyme immune assay, and immunohistochemistry. The presence of estrogen receptors was detected by steroid binding analysis in one of seven patients, although in very low concentrations (3.17 to 5.06 fmol/mg protein). These results were confirmed by enzyme immune assay (6.35 to 9.32 fmol/mg protein). Progesterone receptors were found in five of seven patients by steroid binding analysis (11.1 to 47.9 fmol/mg protein), and progesterone receptor results were confirmed by enzyme immune assay (8.1 to 34.1 fmol/mg protein). By immunohistochemistry, progesterone receptors were focally detected in all cases, whereas all tumors were negative for estrogen receptors. In summary, our results confirm the presence of sex-steroid hormone receptors, particularly progesterone receptors in medullary thyroid carcinoma. The presence of progesterone receptors in medullary thyroid carcinoma apparently does not require the continuous presence of estrogen receptors.
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ABSTRACT: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon tumour of calcitonin-secreting C-cells of the thyroid gland. This cancer represents an important potential model for the study of mechanisms of human epithelial cell transformation. Although recent studies have identified the gene involved in familial forms of MTC, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of the sporadic variants of this tumour. The biological and prognostic significance of TFF1 expression, particularly in diverse human malignancies, suggests that the TFF1 protein could have a role in human neoplasia. Furthermore, in prostate cancer it has been demonstrated that TFF1 expression is closely associated with premalignant changes and neuroendocrine differentiation. In the present study, the expression of TFF1 was analysed in 18 human MTCs, comprising sporadic and familial tumours, C-cell hyperplasia, and one case of lymph gland metastasis. TFF1 expression was also examined in the cultures of a human MTC-derived tumour cell line (TT cell line). The results showed that ten sporadic tumours, three hereditary tumours (including C-cell hyperplasia), and one lymph gland metastasis displayed TFF1 immunoreactivity. Indirect fluorescence immunocytochemistry and Western blotting revealed that the TFF1 protein was strongly expressed in the TT cells. Northern analysis revealed that tumours and TT cells expressed the TFF1 transcript. Although the function of TFF1 protein in the carcinogenesis of MTC remains to be elucidated, its expression in the majority of cases of both sporadic and hereditary tumours, metastatic tumours, and in C-cell hyperplasia suggests that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of MTC.The Journal of Pathology 04/1998; 184(4):408-13. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199804)184:4<408::AID-PATH1222>3.0.CO;2-3 · 7.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which cortisol is produced in adrenal Cushing's syndrome, when ACTH is suppressed, was previously unknown and was referred to as being "autonomous." More recently, several investigators have shown that some cortisol and other steroid-producing adrenal tumors or hyperplasias are under the control of ectopic (or aberrant, illicit, inappropriate) membrane hormone receptors. These include ectopic receptors for gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), beta-adrenergic agonists, or LH/hCG; a similar outcome can result from altered activity of eutopic receptors, such as those for vasopressin (V1-AVPR), serotonin (5-HT4), or possibly leptin. The presence of aberrant receptors places adrenal cells under stimulation by a trophic factor not negatively regulated by glucocorticoids, leading to increased steroidogenesis and possibly to the proliferative phenotype. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the abnormal expression and function of membrane hormone receptors are still largely unknown. Identification of the presence of these illicit receptors can eventually lead to new pharmacological therapies as alternatives to adrenalectomy, now demonstrated by the long-term control of ectopic P-AR- and LH/hCGR-dependent Cushing's syndrome by propanolol and leuprolide acetate. Further studies will potentially identify a larger diversity of hormone receptors capable of coupling to G proteins, adenylyl cyclase, and steroidogenesis in functional adrenal tumors and probably in other endocrine and nonendocrine tumors.Endocrine Reviews 03/2001; 22(1):75-110. · 19.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies directed against human estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) have been used extensively for biochemical and immunohistochemical detection of receptors independent of hormone-binding assays. These antibodies have been valuable both for experimental work and for detection of receptors in clinical breast cancer specimens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of different antibodies for detection of PR by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin breast carcinoma sections. The panel of twelve antibodies included two new ones (PgR636 and PgR1294) produced prospectively to be resistant to formalin fixation and paraffin embedding. Fifty-nine breast carcinomas, having known PR levels by biochemical ligand-binding assay, were used to prepare multitumor paraffin-embedded tissue blocks for characterization of the PR antibodies. Of all the antibodies tested, both PgR636 and PgR1294 stained the highest percentage of breast carcinomas known to be positive by the biochemical assay (95-98%) and they exhibited the highest concordance with the biochemical assay (88-90%). The PgR636 and PgR1294 antibodies, along with one other, PR 88, also gave the highest intensity of nuclear staining, while PgR636 and PgR1294 stained the highest mean percentage of tumor cell nuclei. Antigen retrieval was not necessary for PR immunostaining by PgR636 and PgR1294 in most tumors and other tissues examined, but did slightly increase the staining intensity. The majority of the other antibodies tested were highly dependent on antigen retrieval; only PR 88 and KD 68 antibodies approached the performance of PgR636 and PgR1294 without antigen retrieval. These results indicate that PgR636 and PgR1294 are optimal antibodies for IHC detection of PR in routine paraffin tissue blocks.Steroids 09/2002; 67(9):799-813. DOI:10.1016/S0039-128X(02)00039-9 · 2.72 Impact Factor