Dephosphorylation of serine 3 regulates nuclear translocation of cofilin.
ABSTRACT Signal transduction processes in T-cells and other cell types alter the phosphorylation state of cofilin, an actin-binding phosphoprotein. Whether reversible phosphorylation is responsible for the regulation of the functional activities of cofilin is not clear at present. Here we have identified the phosphoacceptor site of cofilin and analyzed the role of cofilin phosphorylation with respect to its subcellular localization. Site-directed mutagenesis studies show that phosphorylation occurs exclusively on Ser-3. Expression of non-phosphorylatable mutant cofilin proteins in NIH3T3 cells and determination of their subcellular localization by confocal laser scanning microscopy reveal that non-phosphorylated cofilin accumulates within nuclei. This analysis shows that the subcellular localization of cofilin depends on the phosphorylation state of Ser-3.
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ABSTRACT: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a host-adapted opportunistic pathogen, produces a serine phosphatase, SerB, known to affect virulence, invasion and persistence within the host cell. SerB induces actin filament rearrangement in epithelial cells, but the mechanistic basis of this is not fully understood. Here we investigated the effects of SerB on the actin depolymerizing host protein cofilin. P. gingivalis infection resulted in the dephosphorylation of cofilin in gingival epithelial cells. In contrast, a SerB-deficient mutant of P. gingivalis was unable to cause cofilin dephosphorylation. The involvement of cofilin in P. gingivalis invasion was determined by quantitative image analysis of epithelial cells in which cofilin had been knocked down or knocked in with various cofilin constructs. siRNA-silencing of cofilin led to a significant decrease in numbers of intracellular P. gingivalis marked by an absence of actin colocalization. Transfection with wild-type cofilin or constitutively active cofilin both increased numbers of intracellular bacteria, while constitutively inactive cofilin abrogated invasion. Expression of LIM kinase resulted in reduced P. gingivalis invasion, an effect that was reversed by expression of constitutively active cofilin. These results show that P. gingivalis SerB activity induces dephosphorylation of cofilin, and that active cofilin is required for optimal invasion into gingival epithelial cells.Cellular Microbiology 12/2011; 14(4):577-88. DOI:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2011.01743.x · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Actin is a well-known protein that has shown a myriad of activities in the cytoplasm. However, recent findings of actin involvement in nuclear processes are overwhelming. Actin complexes in the nucleus range from very dynamic chromatin-remodeling complexes to structural elements of the matrix with single partners known as actin-binding proteins (ABPs). This review summarizes the recent findings of actin-containing complexes in the nucleus. Particular attention is given to key processes like chromatin remodeling, transcription, DNA replication, nucleocytoplasmic transport and to actin roles in nuclear architecture. Understanding the mechanisms involving ABPs will definitely lead us to the principles of the regulation of gene expression performed via concerting nuclear and cytoplasmic processes.Histochemie 06/2010; 133(6):607-26. DOI:10.1007/s00418-010-0701-2 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Actin Depolymerizing Factor (ADF) gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 11 functional protein isovariants in four ancient subclasses. We report the characterization of the tissue-specific and developmental expression of all Arabidopsis ADF genes and the subcellular localization of several protein isovariants. The four subclasses exhibited distinct expression patterns as examined by qRT-PCR and histochemical assays of a GUS reporter gene under the control of individual ADF regulatory sequences. Subclass I ADFs were expressed strongly and constitutively in all vegetative and reproductive tissues except pollen. Subclass II ADFs were expressed specifically in mature pollen and pollen tubes or root epidermal trichoblast cells and root hairs, and these patterns evolved from an ancient dual expression pattern comprised of both polar tip growth cell types, still observed in the monocot Oryza sativa. Subclass III ADFs were expressed weakly in vegetative tissues, but were strongest in fast growing and/or differentiating cells including callus, emerging leaves, and meristem regions. The single subclass IV ADF was constitutively expressed at moderate levels in all tissues, including pollen. Immunocytochemical analysis with subclass-specific monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that subclass I isovariants localize to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of leaf cells, while subclass II isovariants predominantly localize to the cytoplasm at the tip region of elongating root hairs and pollen tubes. The distinct expression patterns of the ADF subclasses support a model of ADF s co-evolving with the ancient and divergent actin isovariants.The Plant Journal 12/2007; 52(3):460-72. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03257.x · 6.82 Impact Factor