High-dose BCNU and autologous progenitor cell transplantation given with intra-arterial cisplatinum and simultaneous radiotherapy in the treatment of high-grade gliomas: benefit for selected patients.
ABSTRACT A phase II study of postoperative high-dose carmustine (HDBCNU), intracarotid cisplatin (CDDP), and radical radiotherapy in patients with high-grade glioma was performed. Patients underwent 4-6 consecutive days of blood hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) apheresis without prior mobilization. Chemotherapy included intracarotid CDDP, 60 mg/m2, and BCNU, 900 mg/m2. HPC were infused 48 h after HDBCNU. Whole brain irradiation, up to 50 Gy, was started on the 8th day after HPC infusion. With a median follow-up time of 44 months, median overall survival was 15.5 months. Eight patients (23.5%) are alive free of disease 2-6 years after treatment (seven out of 25 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and one out of nine patients with anaplastic astrocytoma). Survival was influenced by young age, good performance and complete surgical resection. Two patients (5.8%) died of therapy-related complications. Acute hematological toxicity of HDBCNU was moderate, with a full recovery on day 26. No acute pulmonary or hepatic toxicity was found. Late severe neurological toxicity was observed in one third of patients surviving beyond 2 years. We conclude that HDBCNU, 900 mg/m2, intracarotid CDDP and radical radiotherapy appear to benefit some patients with high-grade gliomas, and phase III studies should preferentially select young patients with resectable tumors.
- Journal of Neuro-Oncology 10/2008; 89(3):339-57. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas, the most common types of primary brain tumors, with intravenous (iv) chemotherapy has not significantly improved survival for patients with these forms of cancer. A major factor in the failure of iv chemotherapy is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a physiologic impediment to the delivery of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs to the central nervous system (CNS). Intra-arterial and intrathecal infusion, blood-brain barrier disruption, high-dose chemotherapy, intratumoral administration, and convection-enhanced delivery are methods developed to overcome the BBB. Although some of these methods may increase the local concentration-time profile, improvement in clinical outcomes has yet to be definitively established. New methods for assessment of drug delivery to the brain tumor will assume increasing importance in the study of new cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs for these types of cancer. Pharmacokinetic studies are critical components of these clinical trials and allow assessment of drug delivery to the CNS and brain tumor. Additionally, pharmacokinetic studies will remain an important component of early clinical trials, particularly for indentifying significant drug interactions involving the various supporting medications that are typically used in this patient population.Current Oncology Reports 04/2012; 2(5):445-453. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Convection-enhanced delivery using carboplatin in brainstem glioma models was reported to prolong survival. Functional impairment is of additional importance to evaluate the value of local chemotherapy. We established a neurological scoring system for the rat brainstem glioma model. In 46 male Fisher rats stereotactically 10(5) F-98 cells were implanted at 1.4-mm lateral to midline and at the lambdoid suture using guided screws. Following 4 days local delivery was performed using Alzet pumps (1 microl/h over 7 days) with either vehicle (5% dextrose) or carboplatin via one or two cannulas, respectively. All rats were subsequently tested neurologically using a specified neurological score. In 38 animals survival time was recorded. Representative MR imaging were acquired in eight rats, respectively, at day 12 after implantation. HE staining was used to evaluate tumor extension. Neurological scoring showed significantly higher impairment in the high dose carboplatin group during the treatment period. Survival was significantly prolonged compared to control animals in the high dose carboplatin-one cannula group as well as in both low dose carboplatin groups (18.6 +/- 3 versus 26.3 +/- 9, 22.8 +/- 2, 23.6 +/- 2 days; p < 0.05). Overall neurological grading correlated with survival time. MR imaging showed a focal contrast enhancing mass in the pontine brainstem, which was less exaggerated after local chemotherapy. Histological slices visualized decreased cellular density in treatment animals versus controls. Local chemotherapy in the brainstem glioma model showed significant efficacy for histological changes and survival. Our neurological grading enables quantification of drug and tumor-related morbidity as an important factor for functional performance during therapy.Child s Nervous System 12/2008; 25(4):433-41. · 1.24 Impact Factor