In vivo Microdialysis to Determine the Relative Pharmacokinetics of Drugs.
Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan.Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Impact Factor: 1.83). 08/1996; 19(7):988-94. DOI: 10.1248/bpb.19.988
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simultaneous microdialysis method in blood and brain striatum to determine the relative pharmacokinetics and metabolism of L-3,4-dihydroxypenylalanine (L-dopa). L-Dopa (250 mumol/kg) was administered to rats with or without the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) inhibitor carbidopa (25 mumol/kg) or benserazide (25 or 62.5 mumol/kg). L-Dopa, its metabolites, and AADC inhibitors in dialysates were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector. A moment analysis was also made to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters. After administration of L-dopa alone, it and its related metabolites were detected in both dialysates of blood and brain striatum. Coadministration of carbidopa (25 mumol/kg) or benserazide (62.5 mumol/kg) significantly enhanced the striatal amount of L-dopa by 8.0 and 6.1 times, respectively. Carbidopa and benserazide also increased striatal amounts of L-dopa metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol. Inhibition effect of benserazide on an extracerebral decarboxylation of L-dopa to dopamine (DA) was stronger than that of carbidopa. Carbidopa showed a higher striatal level of DA than benserazide. These results suggest a different effect of the two inhibitors on the DA formations in blood and brain striatum, and on the L-dopa transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, microdialysis is an easy and available method for simultaneously assessing the in vivo relative pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs in systemic circulation and a target organ.
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ABSTRACT: Simultaneous brain microdialysis in tumour and non-tumour tissues has been used for kinetic determination of the local distribution of an anticancer agent, cisplatin, in rats. Rat brain was implanted with 9L malignant glioma and cisplatin (3.5 mg kg−) was administered as a selective intracarotid infusion for 30 min to rats prepared for brain microdialysis. The amount of platinum in the dialysate collected from tumour and non-tumour brain tissues was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as representative of cisplatin. Total and free platinum concentrations in plasma were also measured. Free platinum is accumulated preferentially in the tumour tissue and the brain tumour distribution coefficient (the ratio of brain tumour platinum AUC to plasma free platinum AUC, where AUC is the area under the platinum concentration-time curve) was 0.69, although there was little distribution into normal brain tissue. Drug binding to plasma proteins was 65%. It is concluded that simultaneous microdialysis is an easy and available method for assessing in-vivo local pharmacokinetics and distribution of cisplatin in tumour and non-tumour tissues of the brain.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 09/1997; 49(8):777-80. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1997.tb06111.x · 2.26 Impact Factor
- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2000; 88(1):14 - 27. DOI:10.1021/js9801485 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A semi-automated alumina-based extraction method for the determination of L-dopa and dopamine in plasma using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was validated. The method exploited the use of a Tomtec Quadra 96 liquid handing robot to expedite aluminum oxide extraction for sample clean up. Two 96-well sample plates can be processed in less than 2 h and extracts, collected in a 96-well plate format, can be directly injected onto the ESI/LC/MS/MS instrumentation. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on a reverse-phase ODS column (TosoHaas ODS-80) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid (5/95 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.22 ml/min. Analytes were detected by a triple-quadruple mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source (ESI). Recoveries were evaluated for a number of pH modifiers and elution solvents. Under optimized conditions, the mean recoveries of L-dopa and dopamine were 56 and 67%, respectively. Intra-run and inter-run precision, calculated as percent relative standard deviation of replicate quality controls, was in the range of 1.45-10.8% for both L-dopa and dopamine. Intra-run and inter-run accuracy, calculated as percent error, was in the range -2.5 to 6.69% for both analytes. The limit of quantitaiton was 2.5 ng/ml for both L-dopa and dopamine when 100 microl of plasma was extracted. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the quantification of L-dopa and dopamine in plasma or other biological fluid samples from clinical, preclinical, or pharmacological studies.Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 01/2001; 24(2):325-33. DOI:10.1016/S0731-7085(00)00422-2 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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