Life with 6000 genes.
ABSTRACT The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been completely sequenced through a worldwide collaboration. The sequence of 12,068 kilobases defines 5885 potential protein-encoding genes, approximately 140 genes specifying ribosomal RNA, 40 genes for small nuclear RNA molecules, and 275 transfer RNA genes. In addition, the complete sequence provides information about the higher order organization of yeast's 16 chromosomes and allows some insight into their evolutionary history. The genome shows a considerable amount of apparent genetic redundancy, and one of the major problems to be tackled during the next stage of the yeast genome project is to elucidate the biological functions of all of these genes.
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ABSTRACT: THE Genetics Society of America's Edward Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in the solution of significant problems in genetics research. The 2014 recipient, Charles Boone, has risen to the top of the emergent discipline of postgenome systems biology by focusing on the global mapping of genetic interaction networks. Boone invented the synthetic genetic array (SGA) technology, which provides an automated method to cross thousands of strains carrying precise mutations and map large-scale yeast genetic interactions. These network maps offer researchers a functional wiring diagram of the cell, which clusters genes into specific pathways and reveals functional connections.Genetics 10/2014; 198(2):435-7. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate enzymes and play an important role in the primary and secondary metabolism of living organisms. Genome sequencing analysis of fungal organisms revealed the presence of numerous P450s in their genomes, with few exceptions. P450s in the fungal subphylum Saccharomycotina, which contains biotechnologically important and opportunistic human pathogen yeasts, have been underexplored because there are few P450s in their genomes. In the present study we performed comparative analysis of P450s in 25 yeast species. A hundred and seventy-two P450s were found in 25 yeast species and these are grouped into 13 P450 families and 27 subfamilies. P450s ranged from a minimum of three (Saccharomyces species) to a maximum of 21 (Candida species) in the yeast genomes. Among the P450 families, the CYP52 family showed the highest number of member P450s (71) followed by CYP51 (27), CYP61 (25), CYP56 (20) and CYP501 (11). Pichia pastoris and Dekkera bruxellensis showed a novel P450 family, CYP5489, in their genome. Based on the functional properties of characterized P450s, we conclude that P450s in Saccharomycotina species possibly play a role in organisms' physiology either in the synthesis of cellular components or in the utilization of simpler organic molecules. The ecological niches of yeast species are highly enriched with simpler organic nutrients and it is well known that yeast species utilize simpler organic nutrients as carbon source efficiently. This might have played a role in compacting yeast genomes and possibly losing a considerable number of P450s during evolution. The fungal kingdom is the largest biological kingdom and consists of diverse organisms that are adapted to diverse ecological niches. This kingdom is classified into four phyla, namely Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota 1 . The phylum Ascomycota is further classified into three subphyla, namely Pezizomycotina, Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina 2 . Our interest lies in the Saccharomycotina subphylum, which comprises of yeast organisms that are well known for their potential biotechnological value, as well as opportunistic human pathogens. Table 1 shows a list of Saccharomycotina species, provides general information and indicates the importance of these species. Genome sequencing analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with few exceptions 3 . P450s are heme-thiolate enzymes and their role in organisms' primary and secondary metabolism and their potential use in biotechnology, bioremediation, pharmacology and biofuel generation has beenJournal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 11/2014; 8(Spl. Edn. 2):291-302. · 0.05 Impact Factor