Life with 6000 genes.
ABSTRACT The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been completely sequenced through a worldwide collaboration. The sequence of 12,068 kilobases defines 5885 potential protein-encoding genes, approximately 140 genes specifying ribosomal RNA, 40 genes for small nuclear RNA molecules, and 275 transfer RNA genes. In addition, the complete sequence provides information about the higher order organization of yeast's 16 chromosomes and allows some insight into their evolutionary history. The genome shows a considerable amount of apparent genetic redundancy, and one of the major problems to be tackled during the next stage of the yeast genome project is to elucidate the biological functions of all of these genes.
- SourceAvailable from: Johan-Owen De Craene[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2015; 16:1509-1525. · 2.34 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of biorefineries directed to the production of fuels, chemicals and energy is important to reduce economic dependence and environmental impacts of a petroleum-based economy. Microorganisms are essential in several industrial bioprocesses nowadays, and it is expected that new microbial bioprocesses will play a key role in biorefineries. However, the bioconversion process requires a robust and highly productive microorganism. In this scenario, several strategies to genetically improve microorganisms to overcome the bioprocesses challenges have been considered. In this work, we review microorganisms importance in the biorefineries concept, highlight the desirable traits they must hold in order to be employed, and discuss the main strategies to improve such traits. The focuses of this work are on four main targets in the improvement of microorganisms: driving carbon flux towards the desired pathway, increasing tolerance to toxic compounds, increasing substrate uptake range and new products generation.Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. 10/2014; 1.
- Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Bioinformatics of Genome Regulation and Structure, BGRS'2000, Novosybirsk, Russia, August 7-11, 2000; 01/2000