Panic disorder and medical comorbidity: a review of the medical and psychiatric literature.
ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have found significant comorbidity between panic disorder and many medical illnesses. The authors discuss the accumulating psychiatric and medical literature addressing comorbidity between panic disorder and cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological illnesses. Cardiac symptoms such as chest pain and palpitations, as well as certain disorders such as mitral valve prolapse, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy, share significant comorbidity with panic disorder. Researchers have also shown significant comorbidity between panic disorder and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and migraine headache. Pathophysiological mechanisms that may explain the association between panic disorder and comorbid medical illnesses, such as autonomic dysregulation of cardiac activity and smooth muscle tone and dynamic abnormalities of the coronary microvasculature, are discussed as well.
- SourceAvailable from: Pei-Ying S Chan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The perception of respiratory sensations can be of significant importance to individuals for survival and greatly impact quality of life. Respiratory sensory gating, similar to somatosensory gating with exteroceptive stimuli, is indicative of brain cortices filtering out repetitive respiratory stimuli and has been investigated in adults with and without diseases. Respiratory gating can be tested with the respiratory-related evoked potential (RREP) method in the electroencephalogram with a paired inspiratory occlusion paradigm. Here, the RREP N1 component elicited by the second stimulus (S2) shows reduced amplitudes compared to the RREP N1 component elicited by the first stimulus (S1). However, little is known regarding the effect of development on respiratory sensory gating. The present study examined respiratory sensory gating in 22 typically developed school-aged children and 22 healthy adults. Paired inspiratory occlusions of 150-ms each with an inter-stimulus-interval of 500-ms were delivered randomly every 2-4 breaths during recording. The main results showed a significantly larger RREP N1 S2/S1 ratio in the children group than in the adult group. In addition, children compared to adults demonstrated significantly smaller N1 peak amplitudes in response to S1. Our results suggest that school-aged children, compared to adults, display reduced respiratory sensory gating.Neural Plasticity 01/2015; 2015:7. DOI:10.1155/2015/389142 · 3.60 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We explored the comorbidity between panic attacks (PA), whose symptoms can include gastrointestinal discomfort, and gastrointestinal disorders (GD). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from 1,874 MZ and 1,498 DZ male-male twin pairs from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. PA and GD were associated (relative risk for GD = 2). The percentage of liability due to genetic factors was estimated to be 37% for PA and 31% for GD. There was significant correlation between the genetic risk factors for PA and GD (estimated r = .55, 95% CI of 34% to 82%) and no evidence of correlation between the environmental causes of PA and GD. Therefore, PA and GD comorbidity can be explained by overlapping genetic factors and not overlapping environmental factors. Although these data cannot identify a biological pathway for such a shared liability, it suggests the presence of GD may be informative for genetic studies of panic.Twin Research and Human Genetics 02/2011; 14(1):16-24. DOI:10.1375/twin.14.1.16 · 1.92 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This retrospective study examined the association between symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mortality risk following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We assessed 440 CABG surgery patients' scores on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and followed up mortality status for a median of 5 years, 10 months. There were 67 (15%) deaths overall during the follow-up period. Adjusted survival analysis showed that preoperative depressive symptoms were not associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality. Survival analysis with preoperative anxiety adjusted for covariates showed a significantly increased mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR)=1.88 (95% CI=1.12-3.17), P=.02]. Preoperative anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with increased mortality risk after adjustment for known mortality risk factors. Future research should further explore the simultaneous role of anxiety and depression on mortality following CABG.Journal of Psychosomatic Research 04/2008; 64(3):285-90. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.09.007 · 2.84 Impact Factor