Topographical distribution of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the central nervous system of the frog, Rana perezi.
ABSTRACT The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase (ND) activity was histochemically investigated in the brain of the frog Rana perezi. This technique provides a highly selective labeling of neurons and tracts. In the telencephalon, labeled cells are present in the olfactory bulb, pallial regions, septal area, nucleus of the diagonal band, striatum, and amygdala. Positive neurons surround the preoptic and infundibular recesses of the third ventricle. The magnocellular and suprachiasmatic hypothalamic nuclei contain stained cells. Numerous neurons are present in the anterior, lateral anterior, central, and lateral posteroventral thalamic nuclei. Positive terminal fields are organized in the same thalamic areas but most conspicuously in the visual recipient plexus of Bellonci, corpus geniculatum of the thalamus, and the superficial ventral thalamic nucleus. Labeled fibers and cell groups are observed in the pretectal area, the mesencephalic optic tectum, and the torus semicircularis. The nuclei of the mesencephalic tegmentum contain abundant labeled cells and a conspicuous cell population is localized medial and caudal to the isthmic nucleus. Numerous cells in the rhombencephalon are distributed in the octaval area, raphe nucleus, reticular nuclei, sensory trigeminal nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, and, at the obex levels, the dorsal column nucleus. Positive fibers are abundant in the superior olivary nucleus, the descending trigeminal, and the solitary tracts. In the spinal cord, a large population of intensely labeled neurons is present in all fields of the gray matter throughout its rostrocaudal extent. Several sensory pathways were heavily stained including part of the olfactory, visual, auditory, and somatosensory pathways. The distribution of ND-positive cells did not correspond to any single known neurotransmitter or neuroactive molecule system. In particular, abundant codistribution of ND and catecholamines is found in the anuran brain. Double labeling techniques have revealed restricted colocalization in the same neurons and only in the posterior tubercle and locus coeruleus. If ND is in amphibians a selective marker for neurons containing nitric oxide synthase, as generally proposed, with this method the neurons that may synthesize nitric oxide would be identified. This study provides evidence that nitric oxide may be involved in novel tasks, primarily related to forebrain functions, that are already present in amphibians.
Article: Regionalization of the telencephalon in urodele amphibians and its bearing on the identification of the amygdaloid complex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The brain of urodele amphibians has formed the basis for numerous comparative neuroanatomical studies because its simplified arrangement of neurons and fibers was considered to represent the basic pattern common to all tetrapods. However, on the basis of classical histological techniques many common features shared by the brain of amniotes could not be identified in the anamniotic amphibians. Recently, the combined analysis of the chemoarchitecture and hodology has demonstrated that the brain, and particularly the telencephalon, of anuran amphibians shares all major basic features with amniotes. In the present study, we have conducted a series of immunohistochemical detections for telencephalic regional markers (nitric oxide synthase (NOS), gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), Islet-1 (Isl1), and Nkx2.1) that were useful tools for unraveling telencephalic organization in other vertebrates. In addition, the combination of tract-tracing techniques with dextran amines to demonstrate olfactory secondary centers, hypothalamic projections, and brainstem connections has served to propose subdivisions within the amygdaloid complex. The results of the present analysis of the urodele telencephalon using a multiple approach have demonstrated, among other features, the presence of a ventral pallial region, striatopallidal subdivision in the basal ganglia, and three main components of the amygdaloid complex. Therefore, in spite of its apparently simple organization, within the telencephalon of urodeles it is possible to identify most of the features observed in amniotes and anurans that are only revealed with the use of combined modern techniques in neuroanatomy.Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 02/2007; 1:1. · 3.07 Impact Factor
Article: Absence of coexistence between NADPH-diaphorase and antidiuretic hormone in the hypothalamus of two galliforms: Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Based on previous studies demonstrating coexistence of NADPH-diaphorase (ND) and vasopressin (VP) in the rat hypothalamus. ND histochemistry and vasotocin (VT) immunocytochemistry have been combined in order to study the distribution of both markers in the hypothalamus of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus). No coexistence was found, however, close anatomical relationships between ND-positive and VT-immunoreactive elements were observed in specific preoptic and hypothalamic locations. These findings indicate interspecies differences in the expression of ND and the antidiuretic hormone with functional implications in osmoregulation.Neuroscience Letters 11/1996; 216(3):155-8. · 2.11 Impact Factor
Article: Nitric oxide modulates respiratory-related neural activity in the isolated brainstem of the bullfrog[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on respiratory-related neural activity were investigated using the isolated brainstem preparation from bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Addition of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or the amino acid precursor for NO synthesis, l-arginine (l-Arg), produced significant increases in respiratory-related burst frequency. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NA), a non-selective NOS inhibitor, 7-nitro indazole (7-NI), reversibly abolished burst activity. These results suggest that production of NO, probably via neuronal NOS (nNOS), provides a facilitatory input to the respiratory central pattern generator (CPG) in the amphibian brainstem. Endogenous production of NO may be a necessary inter- or intracellular messenger for neurotransmission and/or neuromodulation of central respiratory drive to motor effecters in the bullfrog.Neuroscience Letters 08/1998; · 2.11 Impact Factor