Genomic instability in MycER-activated Rat1A-MycER cells.
ABSTRACT The deregulated expression of c-Myc protein is associated with the non-random locus-specific amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene. This study was performed to determine whether additional chromosomal aberrations occur when c-Myc protein levels are up-regulated for prolonged periods. To this end, we have used Rat1A-MycER cells, which allow the experimental regulation of Myc protein levels. We examined the genomic stability of Rat1A-MycER cells cultivated in either the absence or the presence of estrogen, which reportedly activates the chimeric MycER protein in these cells. Following prolonged periods of MycER activation, Rat1A-Mycer cells exhibited irreversible chromosomal aberrations. The aberrations included numerical changes, chromosome breakage, the formation of circular chromosomal structures, chromosome fusions, and extrachromosomal elements.
Article: Reflecting on 25 years with MYC.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Just over 25 years ago, MYC, the human homologue of a retroviral oncogene, was identified. Since that time, MYC research has been intense and the advances impressive. On reflection, it is astonishing how each incremental insight into MYC regulation and function has also had an impact on numerous biological disciplines, including our understanding of molecular oncogenesis in general. Here we chronicle the major advances in our understanding of MYC biology, and peer into the future of MYC research.Nature Reviews Cancer 01/2009; 8(12):976-90. · 29.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genomic instability is a characteristic of most cancers. In hereditary cancers, genomic instability results from mutations in DNA repair genes and drives cancer development, as predicted by the mutator hypothesis. In sporadic (non-hereditary) cancers the molecular basis of genomic instability remains unclear, but recent high-throughput sequencing studies suggest that mutations in DNA repair genes are infrequent before therapy, arguing against the mutator hypothesis for these cancers. Instead, the mutation patterns of the tumour suppressor TP53 (which encodes p53), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A; which encodes p16INK4A and p14ARF) support the oncogene-induced DNA replication stress model, which attributes genomic instability and TP53 and ATM mutations to oncogene-induced DNA damage.Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 03/2010; 11(3):220-8. · 39.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability to reprogram adult cells into stem cells has raised hopes for novel therapies for many human diseases. Typical stem cell reprogramming protocols involve expression of a small number of genes in differentiated somatic cells with the c-Myc and Klf4 proto-oncogenes typically included in this mix. We have previously shown that expression of oncogenes leads to DNA replication stress and genomic instability, explaining the high frequency of p53 mutations in human cancers. Consequently, we wondered whether stem cell reprogramming also leads to genomic instability. To test this hypothesis, we examined stem cells induced by a variety of protocols. The first protocol, developed specifically for this study, reprogrammed primary mouse mammary cells into mammary stem cells by expressing c-Myc. Two other previously established protocols reprogrammed mouse embryo fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells by expressing either three genes, Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4, or four genes, OSK plus c-Myc. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of stem cells derived by these protocols revealed the presence of genomic deletions and amplifications, whose signature was suggestive of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress. The genomic aberrations were to a significant degree dependent on c-Myc expression and their presence could explain why p53 inactivation facilitates stem cell reprogramming.Cell death and differentiation 02/2011; 18(5):745-53. · 8.24 Impact Factor