The SCID-hu mouse: an in-vivo model for HIV-1 pathogenesis and stem cell gene therapy for AIDS.
ABSTRACT Animal models are critical to the investigation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. However, normal animal models are either uninfectable with HIV-1, or if infected, do not display HIV-1 induced pathology. Here, we describe how the severe combined immunodeficient mouse (SCID), implanted with human fetal thymus and liver, has been used to model HIV-1 pathogenesis and anti-retroviral gene therapy. Unable to reject the human tissue, these chimeric mice provide the investigator with a human hematolymphoid organ which, following infection by HIV-1, may more closely mimic the situation seen in humans than standard in-vitro culture systems.
Article: T cell dynamics in HIV-1 infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the absence of antiretroviral treatment, HIV-1 establishes a chronic, progressive infection of the human immune system that invariably, over the course of years, leads to its destruction and fatal immunodeficiency. Paradoxically, while viral replication is extensive throughout the course of infection, deterioration of conventional measures of immunity is slow, including the characteristic loss of CD4(+) T cells that is thought to play a key role in the development of immunodeficiency. This conundrum suggests that CD4(+) T cell-directed viral cytopathicity alone cannot explain the course of disease. Indeed, recent advances now indicate that HIV-1 pathogenesis is likely to result from a complex interplay between the virus and the immune system, particularly the mechanisms responsible for T cell homeostasis and regeneration. We review these data and present a model of HIV-1 pathogenesis in which the protracted loss of CD4(+) T cells results from early viral destruction of selected memory T cell populations, followed by a combination of profound increases in overall memory T cell turnover, damage to the thymus and other lymphoid tissues, and physiological limitations in peripheral CD4(+) T cell renewal.Annual Review of Immunology 02/2003; 21:265-304. · 52.76 Impact Factor
Article: Rapid CD4(+) T-cell loss induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1(NC) in uninfected and previously infected chimpanzees.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the pathogenicity of a virus originating in a chimpanzee with AIDS (C499), two chimpanzees were inoculated with a plasma-derived isolate termed human immunodeficiency virus type 1(NC) (HIV-1(NC)). A previously uninfected chimpanzee, C534, experienced rapid peripheral CD4(+) T-cell loss to fewer than 26 cells/microl by 14 weeks after infection. CD4(+) T-cell depletion was associated with high plasma HIV-1 loads but a low virus burden in the peripheral lymph node. The second chimpanzee, C459, infected 13 years previously with HIV-1(LAV), experienced a more protracted course of peripheral CD4(+) T-cell loss after HIV-1(NC) inoculation, resulting in fewer than 200 cells/microl by 96 weeks postinoculation. The quantities of viral RNA in the plasma and peripheral lymph node from C459 were below the lower limits of detection prior to inoculation with HIV-1(NC) but were significantly and persistently increased after superinfection, with HIV-1(NC) representing the predominant viral genotype. These results show that viruses derived from C499 are more pathogenic for chimpanzees than any other HIV-1 isolates described to date.Journal of Virology 03/2001; 75(3):1533-9. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: The utility of the new generation of humanized mice to study HIV-1 infection: transmission, prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Substantial improvements have been made in recent years in the ability to engraft human cells and tissues into immunodeficient mice. The use of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) leads to multi-lineage human hematopoiesis accompanied by production of a variety of human immune cell types. Population of murine primary and secondary lymphoid organs with human cells occurs, and long-term engraftment has been achieved. Engrafted cells are capable of producing human innate and adaptive immune responses, making these models the most physiologically relevant humanized animal models to date. New models have been successfully infected by a variety of strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), accompanied by virus replication in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the male and female reproductive tracts, and the brain. Multiple forms of virus-induced pathogenesis are present, and human T cell and antibody responses to HIV-1 are detected. These humanized mice are susceptible to a high rate of rectal and vaginal transmission of HIV-1 across an intact epithelium, indicating the potential to study vaccines and microbicides. Antiviral drugs, siRNAs, and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy strategies have all been shown to be effective at reducing viral load and preventing or reversing helper T cell loss in humanized mice, indicating that they will serve as an important preclinical model to study new therapeutic modalities. HIV-1 has also been shown to evolve in response to selective pressures in humanized mice, thus showing that the model will be useful to study and/or predict viral evolution in response to drug or immune pressures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings reported to date on all new humanized mouse models (those transplanted with human HSCs) in regards to HIV-1 sexual transmission, pathogenesis, anti-HIV-1 immune responses, viral evolution, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and gene therapeutic strategies.Retrovirology 08/2011; 8:65. · 6.47 Impact Factor