Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)
ABSTRACT Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic, neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65%, brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter.
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ABSTRACT: The development of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons is regulated by several transcription factors, including Nurr1, Wnt1, Lmx1a/1b, En1, En2, Foxa1, Foxa2, and Pitx3. PITX3 is an upstream co-activator of the TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) promoter. Pitx3(-/-) mice have a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, leading to the significantly reduced DA levels in the nigrostriatal pathway and in the dorsal striatum and manifest anomalous striatum-dependent cognitive impairment and neurobehavioral activity. Treatment with L-DOPA, dopamine, or dopamine receptor agonists in these mice reversed several of their sensorimotor impairments. Heterozygous missense mutations in PITX3 have been reported in patients with autosomal dominant congenital cataract and anterior segment (ocular) mesenchymal dysgenesis (ASMD) whereas homozygous missense mutations have been found in patients with microphthalmia and neurological impairment. Using a clinical oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we have identified an ∼317 kb hemizygous deletion in 10q24.32, involving PITX3 in a 17-year-old male with a Smith-Magenis syndrome-like phenotype, including mild intellectual impairment, sleep disturbance, hyperactivity, and aggressive and self-destructive behavior. Interestingly, no eye anomalies were found in our patient. Analysis of neurotransmitters in his cerebrospinal fluid revealed an absence of L-DOPA and significantly decreased levels of catecholamine metabolites. Importantly, L-DOPA treatment of our patient has led to mild mitigation of his aggressive behavior and mild improvement of his attention span, extended time periods of concentration, and better sleep.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 03/2012; 159B(2):236-42. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32020 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe a 2-year-old baby affected by Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), due to 17p11.2 deletion, who presented repeated episodes of hemoglobin desaturation during REM sleep. The boy, aged 14 months, presented a phenotype characterized by psychomotor delay, right posterior plagiocephaly, telecanthus, strabismus, upslanting palpebral fissures, broad hypoplastic nasal bridge, short philtrum, deep ring shaped skin creases around the limbs, proximal syndactyly, bilateral hypoacusia. Polysomnographic (PSG) recording showed episodes of REM-related hypoventilation (hemoglobin desaturations without apneas or hypopneas). Sleep disorders are present in almost all the cases of SMS, but very few reports describe the sleep-related respiratory patterns. The finding of REM hypoventilation in SMS does not allow an unequivocal interpretation. It could reflect a subclinical restrictive respiratory impairment or, alternatively, an impairment of central respiratory control during REM sleep. In SMS children, respiratory abnormalities during sleep, and in particular during REM sleep, may cause sleep disruption, reduction of time spent in REM sleep, and daytime sleepiness. We therefore suggest that some sleep abnormalities described in SMS could be consequent to Sleep Disordered Breathing, and in particular to REM hypoventilation. Sleep studies in SMS should include the recording of respiratory parameters.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2010; 152A(3):708-12. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.32700 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.Pediatric Neurology 10/2009; 41(4):250-8. DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2009.04.015 · 1.50 Impact Factor