The labyrinth of IDEA: school decisions on referred students with subaverage general intelligence.
ABSTRACT A sample of 150 children referred to Student Study Teams was assessed with a psychometric battery. Behavioral and academic ratings were obtained from teachers. Forty-three children scored at or below 75 on the WISC-III. We examined schools' subsequent classification decisions to ascertain how schools dealt with low-IQ students with academic and behavioral problems. Schools reached decisions regarding 35 of the children: Only 6 were classified as having mental retardation, and 18, as having learning disabilities. Findings were discussed in terms of (a) decline in identification rates of mild mental retardation and (b) the extent to which school decisions adhere to the research criteria.
Article: Mental retardation and developmental disabilities influenced by environmental neurotoxic insults.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper sets a framework for the discussion of neurotoxicity as a potentially major contributor to the etiology of many types of mental retardation and developmental disabilities. In the past the literatures on developmental neurotoxicology and on mental retardation have evolved independently, yet we know that the developing brain is a target for neurotoxicity in the developing central nervous system through many stages of pregnancy as well as during infancy and early childhood. Our definitions and theories of mental retardation and developmental disabilities affect the models of neurotoxicity we espouse. For instance, models of developmental risk in neurotoxicology have guided environmental regulation to reduce the likelihood of neurotoxic effects. On the other hand, models of developmental risk for mental retardation aim not only at primary prevention,but also at secondary and tertiary prevention through early intervention. In the future, dynamic models of neuroplasticity based on the study of gene-brain-behavior relationships are likely to guide our views of developmental neurotoxicology and prevention of mental retardation and other disabilities.Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2000; 108 Suppl 3:395-9. · 7.04 Impact Factor