D1 dopamine receptor-deficient mouse: Cocaine-induced regulation of immediate-early gene and substance P expression in the striatum
ABSTRACT Psychomotor stimulants such as cocaine alter gene expression in neurons of the striatum. Whereas many of these effects are mediated by D1 dopamine receptors, the involvement of other dopamine receptor subtypes or neurotransmitters is likely. To distinguish between these possibilities, regulation by cocaine of immediate-early genes and genes encoding neuropeptides was analysed in mice that lack functional D1 receptors. Gene expression was examined with in situ hybridization histochemistry. In these animals, cocaine failed to induce the immediate-early genes c-fos and zif 268. In contrast, substance P expression was abnormally increased by this drug. These results demonstrate that some of the effects of cocaine on gene regulation are mediated via D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms, as evidenced by the absence of immediate-early gene induction in D1-deficient mice, whereas others also involve additional, non-D1 receptor mechanisms, as shown for substance P expression.
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ABSTRACT: The striatum plays a key role in mediating the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs, with drugs of abuse causing long-lasting molecular and cellular alterations in both dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum). Despite the wealth of research on the biological actions of abused drugs in striatum, until recently, the distinct roles of the striatum's two major subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in drug addiction remained elusive. Recent advances in cell-type-specific technologies, including fluorescent reporter mice, transgenic, or knockout mice, and viral-mediated gene transfer, have advanced the field toward a more comprehensive understanding of the two MSN subtypes in the long-term actions of drugs of abuse. Here we review progress in defining the distinct molecular and functional contributions of the two MSN subtypes in mediating addiction.Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 07/2011; 5:41. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2011.00041 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that dopamine receptors regulate processes of procedural learning in the sensorimotor striatum. Our previous studies revealed that the indirect dopamine receptor agonist cocaine alters motor-skill learning-associated gene regulation in the sensorimotor striatum. Cocaine-induced gene regulation in the striatum is principally mediated by D1 dopamine receptors. We investigated the effects of cocaine and striatal D1 receptor antagonism on motor-skill learning. Rats were trained on a running wheel (40-60 min, 2-5 days) to learn a new motor skill, that is, the ability to control the movement of the wheel. Immediately before each training session, the animals received an injection of vehicle or cocaine (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and/or the D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (0, 3, 10 microg/kg, i.p., or 0, 0.3, 1 microg, intrastriatal via chronically implanted cannula). The animal's ability to control/balance the moving wheel (wheel skill) was tested before and repeatedly after the training. Normal wheel-skill memory lasted for at least 4 weeks. Cocaine administered before the training tended to attenuate skill learning. Systemic administration of SCH-23390 alone also impaired skill learning. However, cocaine given in conjunction with the lower SCH-23390 dose (3 microg/kg) reversed the inhibition of skill learning produced by the D1 receptor antagonist, enabling intact skill performance during the whole post-training period. In contrast, when cocaine was administered with the higher SCH-23390 dose (10 microg/kg), skill performance was normalized 1-6 days after the training, but these rats lost their improved wheel skill by day 18 after the training. Similar effects were produced by SCH-23390 (0.3-1 microg) infused into the striatum. Our results indicate that cocaine interferes with normal motor-skill learning, which seems to be dependent on optimal D1 receptor signaling. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that D1 receptors in the striatum are critical for consolidation of long-term skill memory.Neuroscience 05/2008; 153(1):249-58. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.01.041 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Striatal dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) are coupled to adenylyl cyclase through Galphaolf. Although this pathway is involved in important brain functions, the consequences of quantitative alterations of its components are not known. We explored the biochemical and behavioral responses to cocaine and D-amphetamine (D-amph) in mice with heterozygous mutations of genes encoding D1R and Galphaolf (Drd1a+/- and Gnal+/-), which express decreased levels of the corresponding proteins in the striatum. Dopamine-stimulated cAMP production in vitro and phosphorylation of AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit in response to D-amph in vivo were decreased in Gnal+/-, but not Drd1a+/- mice. Acute locomotor responses to D1 agonist SKF81259, D-amph and cocaine were altered in Gnal+/- mice, and not in Drd1a+/- mice. This haploinsufficiency showed that Galphaolf but not D1R protein levels are limiting for D1R-mediated biochemical and behavioral responses. Gnal+/- mice developed pronounced locomotor sensitization and conditioned locomotor responses after repeated injections of D-amph (2 mg/kg) or cocaine (20 mg/kg). They also developed normal D-amph-conditioned place preference. The D1R/cAMP pathway remained blunted in repeatedly treated Gnal+/- mice. In contrast, D-amph-induced ERK activation was normal in the striatum of these mice, possibly accounting for the normal development of long-lasting behavioral responses to psychostimulants. Our results clearly dissociate biochemical mechanisms involved in acute and delayed behavioral effects of psychostimulants. They identify striatal levels of Galphaolf as a key factor for acute responses to psychostimulants and suggest that quantitative alterations of its expression may alter specific responses to drugs of abuse, or possibly other behavioral responses linked to dopamine function.Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2007; 32(5):1109-21. DOI:10.1038/sj.npp.1301230 · 7.83 Impact Factor