The effects of allopurinol on the ultrastructure of ischaemic and reperfused large intestine of sheep.
ABSTRACT To test the possible inhibitory effect of allopurinol on reperfusion injury, caused by oxygen-derived free radicals, of sheep large intestine.
An ultrastructural study on caecal tissues from control and treated groups.
Fifty sheep in four ischaemic and reperfused (treatment) groups and one control group. Three of the treatment groups were subdivided for half to be injected with allopurinol and the other half with its solvent, potassium hydroxide (KOH).
Ischaemia of the caecum was induced in the four treatment groups for 60 minutes by clamping the apex. Allopurinol and its KOH solvent were injected intravenously in three treatment groups prior to ischaemia. Samples were collected before and 1 hour after induction of ischaemia and 1 min, 1 h and 8 h after reperfusion. Tissues were processed and examined with an electron microscope.
Untreated and solvent injected sheep showed minor ultrastructural changes following ischaemia. With reperfusion, there was severe mitochondrial, goblet cell and basement membrane damage. Tissues from allopurinol-treated sheep were preserved and appeared similar to tissues from the control group.
Pre-treatment with allopurinol prevented damage to tissues whereas untreated or allopurinol solvent-treated showed severe damage following reperfusion. It is believed that allopurinol, an analogue of hypoxanthine and xanthine, prevents reperfusion injury by competitively binding with xanthine oxidase. This reduces or inhibits the xanthine oxidase mediated conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine thereby preventing the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals.
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ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that oxygen free radicals mediate damage that occurs during postischemic reperfusion. Recombinant human superoxide dismutase (r-h-SOD) has been shown to be effective at reducing reperfusion injury, but it is not known if this infused enzyme actually reduces oxygen free radical concentrations in the myocardial tissue. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to directly measure the effect of r-h-SOD on free radical concentrations in the postischemic heart. Hearts were freeze clamped at 77 degrees K after 10 min of normothermic global ischemia followed by 10 s of reflow with control perfusate (n = 7) or perfusate containing 60,000 U r-h-SOD (n = 7). The spectra of these hearts exhibited three different signals: signal A isotropic, g = 2.004, identical to the carbon-centered ubiquinone free radical; signal B anisotropic with axial symmetry, g parallel = 2.033, g perpendicular = 2.005, identical to the oxygen-centered alkyl peroxyl free radical; and the signal C an isotropic triplet, g parallel = 2.000, an = 24 G, similar to a nitrogen-centered free radical such as a peroxyl amine. With r-h-SOD administration the concentration of the oxygen free radical, signal B, was reduced 49% from 6.8 +/- 0.3 microM to 3.5 +/- 0.3 microM (P less than 0.01) and the concentration of the nitrogen free radical, signal C, was reduced 38% from 3.4 +/- 0.3 to 2.1 +/- 0.3 microM (P less than 0.01). The concentration of the carbon-centered free radical, signal A, however, was increased 51% from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 5.0 +/- 0.2 microM (P less than 0.01). Identical reperfusion with peroxide-inactivated r-h-SOD did not alter the concentrations of free radicals indicating that the specific enzymatic activity of r-h-SOD is required to decrease the concentrations of reactive oxygen free radicals. Additional measurements performed varying the duration of reflow demonstrate a burst of oxygen free radical generation peaking at 10 s of reperfusion. r-h-SOD entirely abolished this burst. These studies demonstrate that superoxide-derived free radicals are generated during postischemic reperfusion and suggest that the beneficial effect of r-h-SOD is due to its specific enzymatic scavenging of superoxide free radicals.Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/1988; 80(6):1728-34. · 12.81 Impact Factor
- Acta physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 02/1986; 548:47-63.
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ABSTRACT: Oxygen-derived free radicals (superoxide and hydroxyl) and related species (hydrogen peroxide and hypohalous acids) have well-defined roles in the inflammatory process. Their actions include the killing of microorganisms as well as participation in cell-to-cell communication among phagocytes via the activation of a superoxide-dependent chemoattractant. The active oxygen species also have roles in postischemic injury brought about by the conversion during ischemia of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) to the radical-producing xanthine oxidase (EC 126.96.36.199). Although the enzymes responsible for producing superoxide in inflammation and ischemia are quite distinct, and are triggered by very different events, there are points of interplay in the two mechanisms whereby an ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury would lead to inflammation, and conversely whereby inflammation could lead to impairment of the circulation and hence to ischemic injury.Federation proceedings 06/1987; 46(7):2402-6.