Community development: theoretical and practical issues for community health nursing in Canada.
ABSTRACT Despite the importance currently given to community development as an increasingly significant role for community nurses, there is little analysis of the role in the nursing literature. This paper provides background information on the historical origins of community development work through an extensive review of the literature. As well, four models of community development are synthesised from literature in sociology, social psychology, education and political science. These include economic development models, education models both formal and informal, confrontational models, and empowerment models. Each is discussed, and the relevance for community health nursing practice is critiqued. Finally, issues which may arise when community health nurses attempt to practice within a community development model are discussed. Issues are examined related to the structures of organizations in which nurses work, characteristics of nurses themselves, and the communities which nurses serve. The argument is advanced that despite the pitfalls and problems, this new role shows promise as an important mechanism for community health nurses to promote the community's health. However, much additional work will be needed to test out models for community development in actual practice. Evaluation of the role will also be important to determine the degree to which it can be implemented and the resultant health outcomes for the population.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The area of sport event tourism has been growing over the past decade, which has led to an increasing amount of research on both the economic and social impacts of sport events. Whereas a substantial number of ex post assessment frameworks for event evaluation is available, there is growing demand for process- orientated ex ante frameworks that guide the strategic study of social utility of events. To address this issue, this paper presents a framework suitable for theoretical and practical research in the area of inter-community sport events. It combines the areas of community participation, intergroup relations, social identity and event impacts in a process towards generating social development within and among communities. The ex ante framework is designed to support the strategic investigation of inter-community sport events and their contribution to social capital, social change and capacity building, and ultimately the enhancement of communities' quality of life.Tourism and Hospitality Research 01/2009; 9(2):120-131.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to invite dialogue about how public health nurses could best address child and family poverty. Their current role is reviewed and a framework for expanding this role is presented. The negative health consequences of poverty for children are well-documented worldwide. The high levels of children living in poverty in wealthy industrialized countries such as Canada should be of concern to the health sector. What role(s) can public health nurses play in addressing child and family poverty? A review of scholarly literature from Canada, the United States of America and the United Kingdom was conducted to ascertain support for public health nurses' roles in reducing poverty and its effects. We then reviewed professional standards and competencies for nursing practice in Canada. The data were collected between 2005 and 2006. Numerous nursing scholars have called for public health nurses to address the causes and consequences of poverty through policy advocacy. However, this role was less likely to be identified in professional standards and competencies, and we found little empirical evidence documenting Canadian public health nurses' efforts to engage in this role. Public health nurses' roles in relation to poverty focus primarily on assisting families living in poverty to access appropriate services rather than directing efforts at the policy level. Factors associated with this limited involvement are identified. We suggest that the conceptual framework developed by Blackburn in the United Kingdom offers direction for a more fully developed public health nursing role. Prerequisites to engaging in the strategies articulated in the framework are discussed. Given more organizational support and enhanced knowledge and skills, public health nurses could be playing a greater role in working with others to make child and family poverty history.Journal of Advanced Nursing 11/2007; 60(1):96-107. · 1.53 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the UK policy recommends that service users (patients, carers and the public) should be involved in all publicly funded health and social care research. However, little is known about which approaches work best in different research contexts and why. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the theoretical limitations to current understandings of service user involvement and to provide some suggestions for theory and methods development. This paper draws upon findings from a review of the research 'evidence' and current practice on service user involvement in the design and undertaking of nursing, midwifery and health visiting research. A multi-method review was commissioned by the NHS Service Delivery and Organisation (SDO) Research and Development Programme. The timeframe was April 2004-March 2005. The full report (Ref: SDO/69/2003) and supplementary bibliography are available from: http://www.sdo.lshtm.ac.uk. REVIEW METHODS/DATA: Initial searches of the health and social care literature and consultations with researchers were used to develop a broad definition of the topic area. A service user reference group (26 members) worked with the project team to refine the scope of the review, to set inclusion criteria and develop a framework for the analysis. Systematic searches of the literature were undertaken online and through library stacks (345 relevant documents were identified). Ongoing and recently completed studies that had involved service users were identified through online databases (34 studies) and through a national consultation exercise (17 studies). Selected studies were followed up using telephone interviews (n=11). Members of the service user reference group worked with the research team to advise on key messages for dissemination to different audiences. Information was gained about contextual factors, drivers, concepts, approaches and outcomes of service user involvement in nursing, midwifery and health visiting research, as well as developments in other research fields. Synthesis of this information shows that there are different purposes and domains for user involvement, either as part of researcher-led or user-led research, or as part of a partnership approach. A number of issues were identified as being important for future research. These include: linking different reasons for service user involvement with different outcomes; understanding the relationship between research data and service user involvement, and developing conceptualisations of user involvement that are capable of accommodating complex research relationships. Suggestions for the development of practice include: consideration of diversity, communication, ethical issues, working relationships, finances, education and training. Because research is undertaken for different reasons and in different contexts, it is not possible to say that involving service users will, or should, always be undertaken in the same way to achieve the same benefits. At a research project level uniqueness of purpose is a defining characteristic and strength of service user involvement.International Journal of Nursing Studies 03/2008; 45(2):298-315. · 2.08 Impact Factor