Factors associated with gastric lesions in thoroughbred racehorses.
ABSTRACT Gastroscopic examinations were performed on 67 Thoroughbred horses in training at a race track and repeat examinations performed in 35 horses, 2 to 3 months later. Horses were age 2-9 years and included 16 two-year-olds, 32 three-year-olds and 19 horses > or = 4-years-old. Forty-two of the 67 horses had raced within the 2 months before the initial examination and the remaining 25 horses were in training. Sixty-two of the 67 horses (93%) had one or more lesions present in the gastric mucosa and lesions were present in all of the 42 horses that had raced. Thirty-two of the 35 horses, examined twice (91%), had gastric lesions on the first examination and all had lesions on the second examination. Four sites of the gastric squamous epithelium were graded for lesion severity on a scale of 0 to 10 and the mean maximum squamous mucosal lesion score was significantly (P < 0.01) greater for the second examination (4.89) than for the first examination (3.63). Maximum lesion scores were greater in 24 horses, no different in 5 horses and less in 6 horses on the second examination. The difference in mean maximum lesion scores between examinations was greatest in horses age 2 years, increasing from 1.75 to 4.00 (P = 0.014). Lesions in the gastric glandular mucosa also were scored on a scale of 0 to 10 and there was no difference in mean lesion scores in the glandular mucosa between the first and second examinations (1.89 vs. 1.90). Lesion scores were compared for gender, racing history and medication with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic corticosteroid or ACTH, or frusemide within the previous 2 months. Except for racing history, there were no significant differences in mean lesion scores for squamous or glandular mucosa based on these comparisons, indicating that there was no effect of gender or medication history on ulcer severity in the horses of our study. Mean maximum gastric squamous mucosal lesion score was significantly (P < 0.01) greater in horses that had raced (4.51) than for horses that had not raced (2.36) in the 2 months before the endoscopic examination. There was no difference in mean glandular mucosal lesion scores between horses that had raced (1.93) compared to horses that had not raced (1.13).
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ABSTRACT: Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares), night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares). The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets). Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002) and more fertility (p = 0.024) in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares). Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73858. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background GastroGard, an omeprazole powder paste formulation, is considered the standard treatment for gastric ulcers in horses and is highly effective. Gastrozol, an enteric-coated omeprazole formulation for horses, has recently become available, but efficacy data are controversial and sparse.Objectives To investigate the efficacy of GastroGard and Gastrozol at labeled doses (4 and 1 mg of omeprazole per kg bwt, respectively, PO q24h) in healing of gastric ulcers.Animals40 horses; 9.5 ± 4.6 years; 491 ± 135 kg.Methods Prospective, randomized, blinded study. Horses with an ulcer score ≥1 (Equine Gastric Ulcer Council) were randomly divided into 2 groups and treated for 2 weeks each with GastroGard followed by Gastrozol (A) or vice versa (B). After 2 and 4 weeks, scoring was repeated and compared with baseline. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were measured on the first day of treatment after administration of GastroGard (n = 5) or Gastrozol (n = 5).ResultsCompared with baseline (squamous score (A) 1.65 ± 0.11, (B) 1.98 ± 0.11), ulcer scores at 2 weeks ((A) 0.89 ± 0.11, (B) 1.01 ± 0.11) and 4 weeks ((A) 1.10 ± 0.12, (B) 0.80 ± 0.12) had significantly decreased in both groups (P < .001), independent of treatment (P = .7). Plasma omeprazole concentrations were significantly higher after GastroGard compared with Gastrozol administration (AUCGG = 2856 (1405-4576) ng/mL × h, AUCGZ = 604 (430-1609) ng/mL × h; P = .03). The bioavailability for Gastrozol was 1.26 (95% CI 0.56–2.81) times higher than for GastroGard.Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceBoth Gastrozol and GastroGard, combined with appropriate environmental changes, promote healing of gastric ulcers in horses. However, despite enteric coating of Gastrozol, plasma omeprazole concentrations after single labeled doses were significantly higher with GastroGard.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A recent study suggested that the duration of acid suppression achieved with once‐daily administration of omeprazole is as short as 12 h and that administration of omeprazole prior to exercise may be superior compared with administration at other times of the day in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS).Equine Veterinary Journal 07/2014; 46(4). · 2.37 Impact Factor