Hiatal hernia with cameron ulcers and erosions.

Gastroenterology Section, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America 11/1996; 6(4):671-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cameron lesions are seen in 5.2% of patients with hiatal hernias who undergo EGD examinations. The prevalence of Cameron lesions seems to be dependent on the size of the hernia sac, with an increased prevalence the larger the hernia sac. In about two thirds of the cases, multiple Cameron lesions are noted rather than a solitary erosion or ulcer. Historically, Cameron lesions present clinically with chronic GI bleeding and associated iron deficiency anemia. With increased awareness of the existence of this lesion, however, it is now more frequently seen as an incidental finding during EGD. Cameron lesions can also present as acute upper GI bleeding, occasionally life-threatening, in up to one third of cases. Therefore, Cameron lesions should be considered in any patient in whom a hiatal hernia is noted during endoscopic examination. Concomitant acid-peptic diseases are seen in a majority of individuals, especially reflux esophagitis and its complications. Mechanical trauma, ischemia, and acid mucosal injury may play a role in the pathogenesis of Cameron lesions. The choice of therapy of Cameron lesions, medical or surgical, should be individualized for each patient. Of those patients who were treated with a spectrum of medical therapy and who have had long-term follow-up, about one third have had a recurrence of the lesion and 17% (8/48) have developed complications, most commonly either acute upper GI bleeding (6.3%) or persistent and recurrent iron deficiency anemia (8.3%).

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    ABSTRACT: Cameron lesions, as defined by erosions and ulcerations at the diaphragmatic hiatus, are found in the setting of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with a hiatus hernia (HH). The study aim was to determine the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Cameron lesions. We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy over a 2-year period. Endoscopy reports were systematically reviewed to determine the presence or absence of Cameron lesions and HH. Inpatient and outpatient records were reviewed to determine prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of medical treatment of Cameron lesions. Of 8260 upper endoscopic examinations, 1306 (20.2%) reported an HH. When categorized by size, 65.6% of HH were small (<3 cm), 23.0% moderate (3–4.9 cm), and 11.4% were large (≥5 cm). Of these, 43 patients (mean age 65.2 years, 49% female) had Cameron lesions, with a prevalence of 3.3% in the presence of HH. Prevalence was highest with large HH (12.8%). On univariate analysis, large HH, frequent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, GI bleeding (both occult and overt), and nadir hemoglobin level were significantly greater with Cameron lesions compared with HH without Cameron lesions (P ≤ 0.03). Large HH size and NSAID use were identified as independent risk factors for Cameron lesions on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cameron lesions are more prevalent in the setting of large HH and NSAID use, can be associated with GI bleeding, and can respond to medical management.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case series of all consecutive patients hospitalized in our two tertiary referral medical centers over the past 17 years for Cameron ulcers causing severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GIH) or severe obscure GIH. Cameron ulcers were diagnosed in 25 of the 3960 screened patients with severe upper GIH or severe obscure GIH (0.6 %). Of these, 21 patients had a prospective follow-up (median time 20.4 months [interquartile range: 8.5 - 31.8]). Patients were more often elderly women with chronic anemia, always had large hiatal hernias, and were usually referred for obscure GIH. Twelve of the 21 patients (57 %) were referred for surgery while being treated with high-dose proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The other 9 patients (43 %) continued PPIs without any rebleeding during the follow-up. Cameron ulcers in large hiatal hernias are an uncommon cause of severe upper GIH. The choice of medical vs. surgical therapy should be individualized.
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