Hiatal hernia with cameron ulcers and erosions.
ABSTRACT Cameron lesions are seen in 5.2% of patients with hiatal hernias who undergo EGD examinations. The prevalence of Cameron lesions seems to be dependent on the size of the hernia sac, with an increased prevalence the larger the hernia sac. In about two thirds of the cases, multiple Cameron lesions are noted rather than a solitary erosion or ulcer. Historically, Cameron lesions present clinically with chronic GI bleeding and associated iron deficiency anemia. With increased awareness of the existence of this lesion, however, it is now more frequently seen as an incidental finding during EGD. Cameron lesions can also present as acute upper GI bleeding, occasionally life-threatening, in up to one third of cases. Therefore, Cameron lesions should be considered in any patient in whom a hiatal hernia is noted during endoscopic examination. Concomitant acid-peptic diseases are seen in a majority of individuals, especially reflux esophagitis and its complications. Mechanical trauma, ischemia, and acid mucosal injury may play a role in the pathogenesis of Cameron lesions. The choice of therapy of Cameron lesions, medical or surgical, should be individualized for each patient. Of those patients who were treated with a spectrum of medical therapy and who have had long-term follow-up, about one third have had a recurrence of the lesion and 17% (8/48) have developed complications, most commonly either acute upper GI bleeding (6.3%) or persistent and recurrent iron deficiency anemia (8.3%).
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ABSTRACT: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a relatively common,potentially life-threatening condition that causes more than 300,000 hospital admissions and about 30,000 deaths per annum in America. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis and therapy of upper gastrointestinal bleeding lesions. Endoscopic therapy is indicated for lesions with high risk stigmata of recent hemorrhage, including active bleeding, oozing, a visible vessel, and possibly an adherent clot. Endoscopic therapies include injection therapy, such as epinephrine or sclerosant injection; ablative therapy, such as heater probe or argon plasma coagulation; and mechanical therapy, such as endoclips or endoscopic banding. Endoscopic therapy reduces the risk of rebleeding,the need for blood transfusions, the requirement for surgery, and patient morbidity.Medical Clinics of North America 06/2008; 92(3):511-50, vii-viii. DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2008.01.001 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in men and postmenopausal women is mostly due to chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. One of the most common missed lesions while performing upper endoscopy in the work-up of IDA, are Cameron lesions, located at the neck of a large hiatal hernia. Description of the bio-clinical and endoscopic findings of a large hiatal hernia, diagnosed in patients presenting with iron deficiency anaemia. Furthermore, a review of the literature concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic management of these patients will be outlined. We retrospectively evaluated 36 patients, presenting with IDA (hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) associated with a large hiatal hernia. Cardiopulmonary complications of anaemia were the presenting symptoms, rather than gastrointestinal related complaints or bleeding. Cameron lesions were visualized only in 18 (50%) of our patients at their first presentation. There was no obvious correlation between the presence of Cameron lesions and visible gastrointestinal blood loss. Initially, almost all of our patients were treated medically. Seven underwent surgical repair of the hiatal hernia and all remained asymptomatic afterwards. We conclude that a hiatal hernia, with or without visible Cameron lesions, is a real and maybe underestimated cause of IDA. Finding a large hiatal hernia on upper endoscopy, together with a negative colonoscopy, completes the diagnostic work-up of IDA in most of these elderly patients. Currently, no guidelines concerning the optimal therapeutic management of this problem are available. Therapy may depend upon the need of transfusion, the efficiency of medical treatment, the risks of surgery and the preference and general condition of the patient.Acta clinica Belgica 07/2005; 60(4):166-72. DOI:10.1179/acb.2005.030 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding provides an uncommon but frustrating and resource-intensive challenge for clinicians. Such patients hemorrhage recurrently from sites within the gastrointestinal tract that are not detected by routine endoscopy or radiography, and require a special diagnostic approach to localize or exclude less common bleeding sources such as small bowel angioectasia or neoplasia. The differential diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal hemorrhage is discussed, and the performance of available endoscopic, radiological and surgical diagnostic tools including enteroscopy are examined critically. A stepwise management algorithm that progresses from the history and physical examination to surgical exploration is offered to facilitate early and efficient diagnosis.Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie 03/2000; 14(2):111-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor