Influence of bee venom immunotherapy on degranulation and leukotriene generation in human blood basophils.
ABSTRACT Rapid clinical tolerance can be induced over several hours by very fast bee venom immunotherapy (VIT) protocols.
To investigate the mechanisms underlying VIT we examined the changes of blood basophil responsiveness during VIT.
Seven bee venom allergic patients with a history of severe systemic reactions after a bee sting were investigated. A cumulative dose of 111.1 micrograms bee venom (BV) was administered sc over 3.5 h under intensive care conditions according to an ultra-rush protocol. The release of histamine and the formation of leukotrienes in response to BV, major BV allergen Phospholipase A2 (PLA), IgE receptor cross-linking with the use of monoclonal antibodies against IgE and IgE receptor, as well as IgE independent activation in response to C5a were determined in vitro before and after ultra-rush VIT.
We demonstrated a decrease of total histamine in peripheral blood leucocytes just after VIT. Histamine release in response to all the stimuli used is not affected by ultra-rush VIT, if expressed as per cent release of total histamine. However, the absolute amount product released in response to stimulation was decreased, particularly with allergen (BV, PLA). We also found a significant reduction of LTC4 formation after VIT in samples stimulated with specific allergen (BV, PLA).
Blood basophils are a target for VIT, which induces impaired release of both preformed and newly generated mediators. However, we believe the basic mechanisms of rapid clinical tolerance induced by ultra-rush VIT remain to be investigated.
Article: Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Subcutaneous venom immunotherapy is the only effective treatment for patients who experience severe hymenoptera sting-induced allergic reactions, and the treatment also improves health-related quality of life. This article examines advances in various areas of this treatment, which include the immunological mechanisms of early and long-term efficacy, indications and contraindications, selection of venom, treatment protocols, duration, risk factors for systemic reactions in untreated and treated patients as well as for relapse following cessation of treatment. Current and future strategies for improving safety and efficacy are also examined. However, although progress in the past few years has been fruitful, much remains to be accomplished.Immunotherapy 02/2011; 3(2):229-46. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the efficiency of venom immunotherapy, the effects on basophils and mast cells remain incompletely understood and probably vary according to the treatment phase. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of build-up and maintenance venom immunotherapy on individual basophils. METHODS: Intracellular histamine and its release was analyzed flow cytometrically by a new enzyme-affinity method using diamine oxidase conjugated to laser-excitable fluorochromes. Phenotyping of cells included flow cytometric quantification of CD63 and CD203c. Analyses of basophil activation experiments were performed before the start of treatment, after build-up therapy and during maintenance therapy. RESULTS: Before the start of therapy, patients demonstrated significantly higher numbers of basophils when compared with stung control individuals. At the end of build-up therapy a decrease of basophil numbers was observed, whereas during maintenance therapy basophil counts returned to pretreatment values. Before the start of therapy, the intracellular histamine content per cell in patients was significantly higher when compared with stung control individuals. During maintenance therapy intracellular histamine content decreased to values observed in stung control individuals. In addition, maintenance therapy lowered the net release of histamine per cell in response to optimal stimulation with wasp venom. CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a novel technique that enables to assess the effects of venom immunotherapy on basophils. This new technique may help to monitor treatment effects in individual patients and could aid in the development of more efficient and better tolerated immunotherapy protocols. © 2013 International Clinical Cytometry Society.Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry 02/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunotherapies with T-cell epitope peptides have shown a promising impact over allergic diseases as a potential therapeutic tool in in vitro and in vivo conditions. It is recognized as an effective treatment with long lasting clinical effects and subsequent reduction of the allergic inflammatory reactions. In this review, we have summarized the role of peptide based immunotherapy and emphasis has also been given to the recent advancement in pollen, cat, hymenoptera venom, and food allergy.International Immunopharmacology 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor