Influence of bee venom immunotherapy on degranulation and leukotriene generation in human blood basophils.
ABSTRACT Rapid clinical tolerance can be induced over several hours by very fast bee venom immunotherapy (VIT) protocols.
To investigate the mechanisms underlying VIT we examined the changes of blood basophil responsiveness during VIT.
Seven bee venom allergic patients with a history of severe systemic reactions after a bee sting were investigated. A cumulative dose of 111.1 micrograms bee venom (BV) was administered sc over 3.5 h under intensive care conditions according to an ultra-rush protocol. The release of histamine and the formation of leukotrienes in response to BV, major BV allergen Phospholipase A2 (PLA), IgE receptor cross-linking with the use of monoclonal antibodies against IgE and IgE receptor, as well as IgE independent activation in response to C5a were determined in vitro before and after ultra-rush VIT.
We demonstrated a decrease of total histamine in peripheral blood leucocytes just after VIT. Histamine release in response to all the stimuli used is not affected by ultra-rush VIT, if expressed as per cent release of total histamine. However, the absolute amount product released in response to stimulation was decreased, particularly with allergen (BV, PLA). We also found a significant reduction of LTC4 formation after VIT in samples stimulated with specific allergen (BV, PLA).
Blood basophils are a target for VIT, which induces impaired release of both preformed and newly generated mediators. However, we believe the basic mechanisms of rapid clinical tolerance induced by ultra-rush VIT remain to be investigated.
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ABSTRACT: Eleven patients with a history of anaphylaxis, positive reactions to skin tests, and specific IgE antibody to wasp venom underwent hyposensitisation in a six hour procedure. No general reactions occurred. Complement activation and proteinuria could not be shown. The patterns of specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 were as described in other procedures--namely, IgE increased sharply and then decreased; IgG1 and IgG4 increased steadily and then decreased--but increase and decrease came earlier. Challenge by a stinging insect at least four weeks after treatment proved complete protection. The skin reactivity two years later showed an unpredictable pattern.British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 12/1983; 287(6402):1329-31.
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ABSTRACT: The anaphylatoxin C5a is a potent trigger for basophil degranulations, but in contrast to IgE-dependent basophil activation, it does not result in the synthesis of sulfidoleukotrienes (leukotriene C4/D4/E4). Thus, degranulation and the generation of lipid mediators are separately regulated cellular responses. Exposure of human blood basophils to the cytokine IL-3 alone does not induce the release of histamine in cells from most donors and never leads to the generation of LTC4, indicating that IL-3 is not a direct agonist for basophil mediator release. However, preincubation of basophils with IL-3 enhances the degranulation response to C5a. Most importantly, IL-3 "primes" basophils to release large amounts of leukotriene C4 after challenge with C5a (mean of 50 gp LTC4 per nanograms cellular histamine), while neither peptide alone is capable of inducing the formation of bioactive lipids. This effect is dose dependent, occurring at IL-3 concentrations considerably lower than are required to stimulate the growth of bone marrow progenitor cells. IL-3 affects the extent but not the time course of basophil degranulation, and leukotriene release of cells sequentially exposed to IL-3 and C5a occurs very rapidly concomitant with degranulation. A preincubation of the basophils with IL-3 is strictly required for C5a-induced LTC4 synthesis, but not for an enhancement of degranulation. Priming for C5a-induced lipid mediator generation occurs rapidly after exposure of the cells to IL-3, starting at 1 min and reaching maximal effects at 5 min, but this altered state of responsiveness is relatively long lasting. Cell fractionation studies indicate that the basophil is the source of lipid mediators and that IL-3 affects the basophil response directly. This study demonstrates that IL-3 is a potent modifier of effector functions of mature basophils; this is possibly of greater in vivo significance than its growth factor properties. The large amounts of LTC4 formed after triggering of IL-3-primed basophils may not only enhance but also qualitatively change the pathophysiological consequences of complement activation, and this might be important in the pathogenesis of immediate type hypersensitivity reactions, shock syndromes, and inflammation.Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/1989; 170(2):467-79. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The IgE-triggered release of mast cell mediators in response to antigen is thought to be the primary event in immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as systemic anaphylaxis. Although mast cells and basophils can be activated in vitro by non-IgE stimuli, it is not known whether these triggers lead to physiological changes in vivo. To investigate this possibility, we generated mice with a homozygous null mutation of the C epsilon gene. Such mice make no IgE, but produce other immunoglobulin isotypes normally. We report that despite the IgE deficiency, sensitized mutant mice become anaphylactic on antigen challenge and display tachycardia and pulmonary function changes similar to those seen in wild-type animals. These responses are accompanied by vascular leak, sharply elevated plasma histamine and rapid death. IgE-independent anaphylaxis does not depend on complement activation, but, as indicated in studies using genetically immunodeficient RAG-2- and SCID mice, does require a functional immune system. Such results clearly demonstrate that non-IgE pathways for hypersensitivity reactions exist in mice.Nature 09/1994; 370(6488):367-70. · 38.60 Impact Factor