Donor-derived human leukocyte antigen class I proteins in the serum of heart transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT Human leukocyte antigen class I proteins are expressed on most cell types in all organ allografts but are constitutively secreted only by certain organs, for example, the liver. We hypothesized that detectable levels of donor-derived human leukocyte antigen proteins would be released from transplanted cardiac allografts only when the allograft was immunologically stimulated, that is, during rejection and perhaps during viral infection. If so, then the release of donor human leukocyte antigen might be a noninvasive monitor of these events.
We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect donor-derived human leukocyte antigen-A2 in the serum of 21 human leukocyte antigen-A2 negative recipients of human leukocyte antigen-A2-positive heart transplants. The level of donor human leukocyte antigen-A2 during the first 100 days after transplantation was correlated with the clinical status of the patient.
We found little or no donor human leukocyte antigen in the serum of heart transplant recipients whose postoperative clinical course was unremarkable for infection or rejection. We did find donor-derived human leukocyte antigen in the serum of heart transplant recipients transiently in the week immediately after transplantation, continuously from patients in whom chronic rejection was developing, during cytomegalovirus infection, and during some, but not all, acute rejection episodes as determined by endomyocardial biopsy.
These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the donor human leukocyte antigen serum level reflects vascular diseases, rather than myocardial disease in the transplanted heart. Therefore, the serum level of donor human leukocyte antigen cannot be used as a monitor of cellular infiltration and myocyte damage as currently assessed by endomyocardial biopsy but may be an early indicator of the development of vascular disease such as chronic rejection.
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ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T cells that respond to indirectly presented alloantigen have been shown to mediate chronic rejection, however, the role of the indirect pathway in acute rejection has yet to be completely elucidated. To this end, BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice were depleted of CD8(+) T cells and transplanted with class II transactivator (CIITA)-deficient cardiac allografts, which cannot directly present class II alloantigens to CD4(+) T cells. In this manner, the rejection response by CD4(+) cells was forced to rely upon the indirect recognition pathway. When not depleted of CD8(+) cells, both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice rejected CIITA-/- allografts and a polarized Th1 response was observed. In contrast, when BALB/c recipients of CIITA-/- allografts were depleted of CD8(+) T cells, the grafts were acutely rejected and a strong Th2 response characterized by eosinophil influx into the graft was observed. Interestingly, CD8-depleted C57BL/6 recipients of CIITA-/- allografts did not acutely reject their transplants and a Th2 response was not mounted. These findings indicate that CD4(+) T cells responding to indirectly presented alloantigens mediate graft rejection in a Th2-dominant manner, and provide further evidence for the role of Th2 responses in acute graft rejection.European Journal of Immunology 04/2005; 35(3):843-51. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following organ transplantation soluble MHC class I is released from the graft and may contribute to alloimmunity. We determined in a well-established rat model whether DC are able to internalise soluble MHC class I alloantigen and then re-present intact alloantigen to B cells and T cells for generation of an alloantibody or CD8 T cell response. PVG.RT1(u) BM-derived DC internalised (via an active process) and retained intact a recombinant soluble form of RT1-A(a) (sRT1-A(a)). When PVG.RT1(u) rats were immunised with sRT1-A(a)-pulsed syngeneic DC, they developed a strong anti-sRT1-A(a) alloantibody response and showed accelerated rejection of RT1-A(a)-disparate PVG.R8 heart grafts. Alloantibody production and accelerated heart graft rejection were both dependent on immunisation with viable sRT1-A(a)-pulsed DC. The alloantibody response to sRT1-A(a)-pulsed DC was directed exclusively against conformational epitopes expressed by sRT1-A(a) and not epitopes expressed, for example, by non-conformational sRT1-A(a) heavy chain. Immunisation with sRT1-A(a)-pulsed syngeneic DC did not stimulate a CD8 T cell response. Our findings suggest a novel alloantigen recognition pathway whereby soluble MHC class I alloantigen released from an allograft may be taken up by recipient DC and presented in an intact unprocessed form to B cells for the generation of an alloantibody response.European Journal of Immunology 04/2007; 37(3):696-705. · 4.97 Impact Factor
Article: Autophagy: an affair of the heart.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Whether an element of routine housekeeping or in the setting of imminent disaster, it is a good idea to get one's affairs in order. Autophagy, the process of recycling organelles and protein aggregates, is a basal homeostatic process and an evolutionarily conserved response to starvation and other forms of metabolic stress. Our understanding of the role of autophagy in the heart is changing rapidly as new information becomes available. This review examines the role of autophagy in the heart in the setting of cardioprotection, hypertrophy, and heart failure. Contradictory findings are reconciled in light of recent developments. The preponderance of evidence favors a beneficial role for autophagy in the heart under most conditions.Heart Failure Reviews 11/2012; · 4.45 Impact Factor