Prodynorphin mRNA expression in the rat dentate gyrus after cerebral ischemia.
ABSTRACT The beneficial effects of exogenous kappa receptor agonists in preventing neuronal damage elicited by brain ischemia suggest a role for endogenous dynorphins. In agreement prodynorphin (PDYN) gene expression in granule cells of the dentate gyrus detected by in situ hybridization was drastically but transiently decreased 18-32 h after four-vessel cerebral ischemia for 20 min in rats. We propose that decreased dynorphin synthesis and release could contribute to the delayed neuronal death of hippocampal pyramidal cells in this model.
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ABSTRACT: Brain ischemia triggers a complex cascade of molecular events that unfolds over hours to days. Identified mechanisms of postischemic neuronal injury include altered Ca(2+) homeostasis, free radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, protease activation, altered gene expression, and inflammation. Although many of these events are well characterized, our understanding of how they are integrated into the causal pathways of postischemic neuronal death remains incomplete. The primary goal of this review is to provide an overview of molecular injury mechanisms currently believed to be involved in postischemic neuronal death specifically highlighting their time course and potential interactions.Annals of Emergency Medicine 12/2000; 36(5):483-506. · 4.33 Impact Factor
Article: Endogenous opiates: 1996.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper is the nineteenth installment of our annual review of research concerning the opiate system. It summarizes papers published during 1996 reporting the behavioral effects of the opiate peptides and antagonists, excluding the purely analgesic effects, although stress-induced analgesia is included. The specific topics covered this year include stress, tolerance and dependence; eating; drinking; gastrointestinal, renal, and hepatic function; mental illness and mood; learning, memory, and reward; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; seizures and other neurological disorders; electrical-related activity; general activity and locomotion; sex, pregnancy, and development; immunological responses; and other behaviors.Peptides 02/1997; 18(10):1651-88. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated neuroprotective effects of the opioid peptide dynorphin (dyn) 1-13 in focal cerebral ischemia. The passage of dyn 1-13 across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was studied by a modification of the Oldendorf technique in the normal rat and cat, as well as in a feline model of experimentally induced focal cerebral ischemia. In the rat, dyn 1-13 penetration of the BBB could not be detected by this technique, even in the presence of peptidase inhibitors. In contrast, dyn 1-13 did cross the BBB into the normal cat hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum. The passage of dyn 1-13 across the BBB was greater in cats with experimentally induced focal cerebral ischemia. Some of the tritium-labeled material which crossed the BBB was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography to be dyn 1-13. These studies support the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects observed after the peripheral administration of dyn 1-13 to cats with focal cerebral ischemia can be produced by a central mechanism of action.Neuropeptides 05/1998; 32(2):141-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor