We investigated different culture conditions for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with regard to proliferation, phenotypic changes, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy.
After enzymatic digestion of the murine fibrosarcoma, MCA-105, TIL cultures were initiated as pure lymphocyte (groups 1 and 2) or mixed lymphocyte/tumor suspensions (groups 3 and 4). Group I TILs were grown in culture medium containing 100 IU/ml recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2). Group 2 TILs were stimulated with solid-phase anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for 48 h and cultured in rIL-2 (100 IU/ml)-containing medium. Group 3, which consisted initially of a surplus of tumor cells, received the same treatment as group 2. Group 4 was also activated with anti-CD3 mAb and rIL-2 but was additionally restimulated weekly with irradiated tumor cells (TILs to tumor, 20:1).
Groups 1 and 2 showed up to twofold higher increases in TIL numbers compared with groups 3 and 4 by the end of culture week 5. Although the original lymphocyte/tumor cell suspension consisted of 12.0 +/- 3.8% CD4+ T cells and 5.3 +/- 3.3% CD8+ T cells, all four TIL cultures showed approximately 80% CD8+ TILs and no CD4+ TILs by the end of culture week 4. In vitro cytotoxicity did not correlate with in vivo efficacy of the examined TIL cultures. By using the MCA-105 pulmonary metastases model in C57BL/6 mice, only suboptimal doses of TILs (2 x 10(6)) from group 4, which had been restimulated weekly with irradiated tumor, showed significant tumor eradication compared with all other treatment groups (p < 0.01).
We conclude that in vitro tumor restimulation of TILs improves in vivo efficacy, most likely through the education of tumor-reactive T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to illustrate some of the technical and biological hurdles that need to be addressed when developing new gene therapy based clinical trials. Gene transfer approaches can be used to "mark" cells to monitor their persistence in vivo in patients, to protect cells from toxic chemotherapeutic agents, correct a genetic defect within the target cell, or to confer a novel function on the target cell. Selection of the most suitable vector for gene transfer depends upon a number of factors such as the target cell itself and whether gene expression needs to be sustained or transient. The TCR gene transfer approach described here represents one innovative strategy being pursued as a potential therapy for metastatic melanoma. Tumor reactive T cells can be isolated from the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) of melanoma patients. A retroviral vector has been constructed containing the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chain genes from a MART-1-specific T cell clone (TIL 5). Jurkat cells transduced with this virus specifically release cytokine in response to MART-1 peptide pulsed T2 cells, showing that the virus can mediate expression of a functional TCR. HLA-A2 transgenic mice are being used to examine whether transduced bone marrow progenitor cells will differentiate in vivo into mature CD8+ T cells expressing the MART-1-specific TCR. Expression of the human TCR alpha and beta chain genes has been detected by RT-PCR in the peripheral blood of HLA-A2 transgenic mice reconstituted with transduced mouse bone marrow. Expression of the TIL 5 TCR genes in the peripheral blood of these mice was maintained for greater than 40 weeks after bone marrow reconstitution. TIL 5 TCR gene expression was also maintained following transfer of bone marrow from mice previously reconstituted with transduced bone marrow to secondary mouse recipients, suggesting that a pluripotent progenitor or lymphocyte progenitor cell has been transduced.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor-associated-Ag MART-1 is expressed by most human melanomas. The genes encoding an alphabeta TCR from a MART-1-specific, HLA-A2-restricted, human T cell clone have been efficiently transferred and expressed in human PBL. These retrovirally transduced PBL cultures were MART-1 peptide reactive, and most cultures recognized HLA-A2+ melanoma lines. Limiting dilution clones were generated from three bulk transduced PBL cultures to investigate the function of individual clones within the transduced cultures. Twenty-nine of 29 CD8+ clones specifically secreted IFN-gamma in response to T2 cells pulsed with MART-1(27-35) peptide, and 23 of 29 specifically secreted IFN-gamma in response to HLA-A2+ melanoma lines. Additionally, 23 of 29 CD8+ clones lysed T2 cells pulsed with the MART-1(27-35) peptide and 15 of 29 lysed the HLA-A2+ melanoma line 888. CD4+ clones specifically secreted IFN-gamma in response to T2 cells pulsed with the MART-1(27-35) peptide. TCR gene transfer to patient PBL can produce CTL with anti-tumor reactivity in vitro and could potentially offer a treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. This approach could also be applied to the treatment of other tumors and viral infections. Additionally, TCR gene transfer offers unique opportunities to study the fate of adoptively transferred T cells in vivo.
The Journal of Immunology 08/1999; 163(1):507-13. · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the ability of different cells present in murine tumors to induce apoptosis of activated CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Tumor cells do not induce apoptosis of T cells; however, macrophages that infiltrate tumors are potent inducers of apoptosis. Tumor macrophages express cell surface-associated TNF, TNF type I (CD120a) and II (CD120b) receptors, and, upon contact with T cells which induces release of IFN-gamma from T cells, secrete nitric oxide. Killing of T cells in vitro is blocked by Abs to IFN-gamma, TNF, CD120a, or CD120b, or N-methyl-L-arginine. In concert with that finding, tumor macrophages isolated from either TNF type I or type II receptor -/- mice are not proapoptotic and do not produce nitric oxide upon contact with activated T cells. Control macrophages do not express TNF receptors or release nitric oxide. Tumor cells or tumor-derived macrophages do not express FasL, and blocking Abs to either Fas or FasL have no effect on macrophage-mediated T cell killing. These results demonstrate that macrophages which infiltrate tumors are highly proapoptotic and may be responsible for elimination of activated antitumor T cells within the tumor bed.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2001; 167(10):5583-93. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.167.10.5583 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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