Improved in vivo efficacy of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after restimulation with irradiated tumor cells in vitro.
ABSTRACT We investigated different culture conditions for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with regard to proliferation, phenotypic changes, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy.
After enzymatic digestion of the murine fibrosarcoma, MCA-105, TIL cultures were initiated as pure lymphocyte (groups 1 and 2) or mixed lymphocyte/tumor suspensions (groups 3 and 4). Group I TILs were grown in culture medium containing 100 IU/ml recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2). Group 2 TILs were stimulated with solid-phase anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for 48 h and cultured in rIL-2 (100 IU/ml)-containing medium. Group 3, which consisted initially of a surplus of tumor cells, received the same treatment as group 2. Group 4 was also activated with anti-CD3 mAb and rIL-2 but was additionally restimulated weekly with irradiated tumor cells (TILs to tumor, 20:1).
Groups 1 and 2 showed up to twofold higher increases in TIL numbers compared with groups 3 and 4 by the end of culture week 5. Although the original lymphocyte/tumor cell suspension consisted of 12.0 +/- 3.8% CD4+ T cells and 5.3 +/- 3.3% CD8+ T cells, all four TIL cultures showed approximately 80% CD8+ TILs and no CD4+ TILs by the end of culture week 4. In vitro cytotoxicity did not correlate with in vivo efficacy of the examined TIL cultures. By using the MCA-105 pulmonary metastases model in C57BL/6 mice, only suboptimal doses of TILs (2 x 10(6)) from group 4, which had been restimulated weekly with irradiated tumor, showed significant tumor eradication compared with all other treatment groups (p < 0.01).
We conclude that in vitro tumor restimulation of TILs improves in vivo efficacy, most likely through the education of tumor-reactive T cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Kazuaki Tanabe[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), as well as myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), have a dual role not only in initiating immune responses but also in inducing tolerance to exogenous and endogenous antigens. Tumour antigens originate from endogenous self-antigens, which are poorly immunogenic and also subject to change during tumour progression. In general, tumour antigens derived from apoptotic cells are captured by immature mDCs, antigen presentation by which is most likely to result in immune tolerance. In contrast, tumour antigens may be taken up by pDCs through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) via receptor-mediated endocytosis. TLR9-dependent activation of pDCs results in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-12 and type I interferons (IFNs) through a MyD88-dependent pathway. Type I IFNs also activate mDCs for T-cell priming. Although pDCs recruited to the tumour site are implicated in facilitating tumour growth via immune suppression, they can be released from the tumour as a result of cell death caused by primary systemic chemotherapy, and can then be activated through TLR9. Thus, synergistically with mDCs, pDCs may also play a crucial role in mediating cancer immunity. In this review, the potential functional duality and plasticity of pDCs mediated by TLR9 ligation in cancer immunity will be discussed.Immunology 07/2007; 121(2):149-57. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer represents a challenging disease. Despite recent treatment advances, which have improved functional outcomes, the long-term survival of head and neck cancer patients has remained unchanged for the past 25 years. One of the goals of adjuvant cancer therapy is to eradicate local regional microscopic and micrometastatic disease with minimal toxicity to surrounding normal cells. In this respect, antigen-specific immunotherapy is an attractive therapeutic approach. With the advances in molecular genetics and fundamental immunology, antigen-specific immunotherapy is being actively explored using DNA, bacterial vector, viral vector, peptide, protein, dendritic cell, and tumor-cell based vaccines. Early phase clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of these novel therapies and the emphasis is now shifting towards the development of strategies, which can increase the potency of these vaccines. As the field of immunotherapy matures and as our understanding of the complex interaction between tumor and host develops, we get closer to realizing the potential of immunotherapy as an adjunctive method to control head and neck cancer and improve long-term survival in this patient population.Journal of Biomedical Science 06/2008; 15(3):275-89. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary bone tumor. The use of aggressive chemotherapy has drastically improved the prognosis of the patients with non-metastatic osteosarcomas, however the prognosis of the patients with metastasis is still very poor. Then, new and more effective treatments for curing osteosarcoma, such as immunotherapy are needed. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have been involved in the control of tumor development and already assessed with success for the treatment of several cancers including melanoma. While TIL represent a fascinating therapeutic approach in numerous malignant pathologies, there is few report concerning adult bone-associated tumors including osteosarcoma. Human TIL were isolated and characterized (phenotype, lytic activity) from twenty-seven patients with bone-associated tumors (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, giant cell tumor, chondrosarcoma, plasmocytoma and bone metastases). Similar experiments were performed using rat osteosarcoma model. While TIL with a main CD4+ profile were easily isolated from most of the tumor samples, only TIL extracted from osteosarcoma were cytotoxic against allogeneic tumor cells. In all cases, TIL lytic activity was significantly higher compared to autologous peripheral blood leukocytes. Similar data were observed in rat osteosarcoma model where TIL were characterized by a main CD4+ profile and high lytic activity against allogeneic and autologous tumor cells. Moreover, rat TIL expansion was not accompanied by refractoriness to further activation stimulus mainly by tumor antigens. These results demonstrated that TIL therapy could be a very efficient strategy for the treatment of adult osteosarcoma.BMC Cancer 02/2005; 5:123. · 3.33 Impact Factor