Expression patterns of Id1, Id2, and Id3 are highly related but distinct from that of Id4 during mouse embryogenesis.
ABSTRACT The murine dominant negative helix-loop-helix (dnHLH) proteins inhibit the activities of bHLH transcription factors in diverse cell lineages (Benezra et al.  Cell 61:49-59; Christy et al  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:1815-1819; Sun et al  Mol. Cell Biol. 11: 5603-5611; Riechmann et al.  Nucleic Acids Res. 22:749-755). Currently, there are four members in the dnHLH family, Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4. In this report, we have performed a detailed comparative in situ hybridization analysis to examine their expression pattern during post-gastrulational mouse development. Id1, 2, and 3 are expressed in multiple tissues, whereas Id4 expression can only be detected in neuronal tissues and in the ventral portion of the epithelium of the developing stomach. The regions where Id1-3 genes are expressed, such as gut, lung, kidney, tooth, whisker, and several glandular structures, are undergoing active morphogenetic activities. The expression patterns of Id1, 2, and 3 overlap in many organs, except in the tissue derived from primitive gut. In the latter, Id1 and Id3 signals are detected in the mesenchyme surrounding the epithelium, whereas Id2 is expressed within the epithelium. The difference in the patterns of expressions of Id2-3 and Id4 suggest that the dominant negative transcriptional activity of these two subclasses of the Id family may have different physiological consequences.
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ABSTRACT: A miRNAs profiling on a group of familial and sporadic breast cancers showed that miRNA-342 was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) levels. To investigate at functional level the role of miR-342 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we focused our attention on its "in silico" predicted putative target gene ID4, a transcription factor of the helix-loop-helix protein family whose expression is inversely correlated with that of ER. ID4 is expressed in breast cancer and can negatively regulate BRCA1 expression. Our results showed an inverse correlation between ID4 and miR-342 as well as between ID4 and BRCA1 expression. We functionally validated the interaction between ID4 and miR-342 in a reporter Luciferase system. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that regulation of ID4 mediated by miR-342 could be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer by downregulating BRCA1 expression. We functionally demonstrated the interactions between miR-342, ID4 and BRCA1 in a model provided by ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line that presented high levels of ID4. Overexpression of miR-342 in these cells reduced ID4 and increased BRCA1 expression, supporting a possible role of this mechanism in breast cancer. In the ER-positive MCF7 and in the BRCA1-mutant HCC1937 cell lines miR-342 over-expression only reduced ID4. In the cohort of patients we studied, a correlation between miR-342 and BRCA1 expression was found in the ER-negative cases. As ER-negative cases were mainly BRCA1-mutant, we speculate that the mechanism we demonstrated could be involved in the decreased expression of BRCA1 frequently observed in non BRCA1-mutant breast cancers and could be implicated as a causal factor in part of the familial cases grouped in the heterogeneous class of non BRCA1 or BRCA2-mutant cases (BRCAx). To validate this hypothesis, the study should be extended to a larger cohort of ER-negative cases, including those belonging to the BRCAx class.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87039. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) are expressed upon re-entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle following serum stimulation. These genes are involved in growth control and differentiation and hence their expression is tightly controlled. Many IEGs are regulated through Serum Response Elements (SREs) in their promoters, which bind Serum Response Factor (SRF). However, many other IEGs do not have SREs in their promoters and their serum regulation is poorly understood. We have identified SRF-independent IEGs in SRF-depleted fibroblasts. One of these, Id1, was examined more closely. We mapped a serum responsive element in the Id1 promoter and find that it is identical to a BMP Responsive Element (BRE). The Id1 BRE is necessary and sufficient for the serum regulation of Id1. Inhibition of the BMP pathway by siRNA depletion of Smad 4, treatment with the BMP antagonist noggin, or the BMP receptor inhibitor dorsomorphin blocked serum induction of Id1. Further, BMP2 is sufficient to induce Id1 expression. Given reports that SRC inhibitors can block Id1 expression, we tested the SRC inhibitor, AZD0530, and found that it inhibits the serum activation of Id1. Surprisingly, this inhibition is independent of SRC or its family members. Rather, we show that AZD0530 directly inhibits the BMP type I receptors. Serum induction of the Id1 related gene Id3 also required the BMP pathway. Given these and other findings we conclude that the Id family of IEGs is regulated by BMPs in serum through similar BREs. This represents a second pathway for serum regulation of IEGs.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Valvular Interstitial Cells (VICs) are a common substrate for congenital and adult heart disease yet the signaling mechanisms governing their formation during early valvulogenesis are incompletely understood. We developed an unbiased strategy to identify genes important in endocardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) using a spatial transcriptional profile. Endocardial cells overlaying the cushions of the atrioventricular canal (AVC) and outflow tract (OFT) undergo an EMT to yield VICs. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of gene expression between AVC, OFT, and ventricles (VEN) isolated from chick and mouse embryos at comparable stages of development (chick HH18; mouse E11.0) was performed. EMT occurs in the AVC and OFT cushions, but not VEN at this time. 198 genes in the chick (n=1) and 105 genes in the mouse (n=2) were enriched 2-fold in the cushions. Gene regulatory networks (GRN) generated from cushion-enriched gene lists confirmed TGFβ as a nodal point and identified NF-κB as a potential node. To reveal previously unrecognized regulators of EMT four candidate genes, Hapln1, Id1, Foxp2, and Meis2, and a candidate pathway, NF-κB, were selected. In vivo spatial expression of each gene was confirmed by in situ hybridization and a functional role for each in endocardial EMT was determined by siRNA knockdown in a collagen gel assay. Our spatial-transcriptional profiling strategy yielded gene lists which reflected the known biology of the system. Further analysis accurately identified and validated previously unrecognized novel candidate genes and the NF-κB pathway as regulators of endocardial cell EMT in vitro.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2013; · 5.15 Impact Factor