Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementias. Behavioral distinctions.
ABSTRACT Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a syndrome produced by lobar degeneration of the temporal and/or frontal lobes.
To quantify the behavioral disturbances of FTD and compare them with behavioral changes observed in Alzheimer disease (AD).
Cross-sectional comparison of 2 groups defined by research diagnostic criteria and single photon emission computed tomography. Behaviors were assessed using a standardized rating scale-Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Groups were matched for dementia severity.
Patients were seen at 2 university-based outpatient dementia clinics and a Veterans Affairs medical center.
Twenty-two patients with FTD and 30 patients with AD.
Patients with FTD had significantly greater total Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores than patients with AD and exhibited more apathy, disinhibition, euphoria, and aberrant motor behavior. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory accurately assigned 77% of patients with FTD and 77% of patients with AD to the correct diagnostic group using disinhibition, apathy, and depression. Patients with FTD had higher levels of disinhibition and apathy with relatively lower levels of depression compared with patients with AD.
The Neuropsychiatric Inventory provides a behavioral profile that differentiates patients with FTD from patients with AD. Patients with FTD are more behaviorally disturbed but are often less depressed than patients with AD relative to their level of apathy.
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is a chronic mood disorder with the peak age of onset between 20 and 40 years. The majority of patients have onset prior to age 50. Age of onset can have a significant impact on the etiology, nature and course of the illness. Mania in old age needs a careful assessment for underlying neurological diseases, especially cerebrovascular disease. A 84 year old woman who had complaints of excessive and meaningless talking, irritability, restlessness, anger and insomnia for the first time in her life is presented in this case report. The patient was evaluated and diagnosed as first episode manic attack. Rarity of first manic attack in old age is the significant aspect of the case. Taking notice of items about diagnosing and treating in this kind of patients are discussed in this case report.Düşünen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences. 01/2013; 26(1):102-105.
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ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in dementia and have been associated with patient and caregiver distress, increased risk of institutionalization and higher costs of care. In this context, the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) is the most widely used comprehensive tool designed to measure neuropsychiatric Symptoms in geriatric patients with dementia. The aim of this study was to present the validity and reliability of the European Portuguese version of NPI.Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 01/2015; 7(1):21-8.
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ABSTRACT: Disruptions in emotional, cognitive, and social behavior are common in neurodegenerative disease and in many forms of psychopathology. Because neurodegenerative diseases have patterns of brain atrophy that are much clearer than those of psychiatric disorders, they may provide a window into the neural bases of common emotional and behavioral symptoms.Wediscuss five common symptoms that occur in both neurodegenerative disease and psychopathology (i.e., anxiety, dysphoric mood, apathy, disinhibition, and euphoric mood) and their associated neural circuitry. We focus on two neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia) that are common and well characterized in terms of emotion, cognition, and social behavior and in patterns of associated atrophy. Neurodegenerative diseases provide a powerful model system for studying the neural correlates of psychopathological symptoms; this is supported by evidence indicating convergence with psychiatric syndromes (e.g., symptoms of disinhibition associated with dysfunction in orbitofrontal cortex in both frontotemporal dementia and bipolar disorder). We conclude that neurodegenerative diseases can play an important role in future approaches to the assessment, prevention, and treatment of mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 10 is March 20, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 01/2014; · 12.42 Impact Factor