Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementias. Behavioral distinctions.
ABSTRACT Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a syndrome produced by lobar degeneration of the temporal and/or frontal lobes.
To quantify the behavioral disturbances of FTD and compare them with behavioral changes observed in Alzheimer disease (AD).
Cross-sectional comparison of 2 groups defined by research diagnostic criteria and single photon emission computed tomography. Behaviors were assessed using a standardized rating scale-Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Groups were matched for dementia severity.
Patients were seen at 2 university-based outpatient dementia clinics and a Veterans Affairs medical center.
Twenty-two patients with FTD and 30 patients with AD.
Patients with FTD had significantly greater total Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores than patients with AD and exhibited more apathy, disinhibition, euphoria, and aberrant motor behavior. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory accurately assigned 77% of patients with FTD and 77% of patients with AD to the correct diagnostic group using disinhibition, apathy, and depression. Patients with FTD had higher levels of disinhibition and apathy with relatively lower levels of depression compared with patients with AD.
The Neuropsychiatric Inventory provides a behavioral profile that differentiates patients with FTD from patients with AD. Patients with FTD are more behaviorally disturbed but are often less depressed than patients with AD relative to their level of apathy.
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ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in dementia and have been associated with patient and caregiver distress, increased risk of institutionalization and higher costs of care. In this context, the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) is the most widely used comprehensive tool designed to measure neuropsychiatric Symptoms in geriatric patients with dementia. The aim of this study was to present the validity and reliability of the European Portuguese version of NPI.Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 01/2015; 7(1):21-8. DOI:10.14740/jocmr1959w
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is a chronic mood disorder with the peak age of onset between 20 and 40 years. The majority of patients have onset prior to age 50. Age of onset can have a significant impact on the etiology, nature and course of the illness. Mania in old age needs a careful assessment for underlying neurological diseases, especially cerebrovascular disease. A 84 year old woman who had complaints of excessive and meaningless talking, irritability, restlessness, anger and insomnia for the first time in her life is presented in this case report. The patient was evaluated and diagnosed as first episode manic attack. Rarity of first manic attack in old age is the significant aspect of the case. Taking notice of items about diagnosing and treating in this kind of patients are discussed in this case report.
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ABSTRACT: The clinical differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can no longer rely only on episodic memory impairment or executive dysfunctions, as highlighted by recent findings showing that both diseases could present with similar impairments. Objective cognitive tests assessing specific symptoms, such as impulsivity in bvFTD, are thus crucially needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in impulsivity between bvFTD and AD using a delay-discounting paradigm. An ecological delay-discounting test was administrated to 70 participants including 30 ADs, 20 bvFTD and 20 controls. AD patients were divided according to the severity of the disease into mild or moderate group. The delay-discounting score, reflecting the total percentage of impulsive choice across the entire task, was analyzed for each group. This score showed that bvFTD patients were significantly more impulsive than controls and AD patients at mild or moderate stage. AD patients, regardless of disease stage, did not differ from controls. ROC analyses revealed high and significant area under the curve (AUC, 95% confidence interval) for this score to differentiate bvFTD from AD (0.704) or controls (0.904), or both group (AD + controls; AUC = 0.791). The total delay-discounting score provided by our task showed that it could accurately differentiate bvFTD patients from AD and controls. These results support the relevancy of using tests inspired by experimental psychoeconomics and taping into reward processing to increase the distinction between both diseases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).Neuropsychology 04/2015; DOI:10.1037/neu0000197 · 3.43 Impact Factor