Pharmacologically novel GABA receptor in human dorsal root ganglion neurons.
ABSTRACT 1. Whole cell voltage-clamp studies of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were performed on large (> 80 microns) cultured human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. 2. GABA and pentobarbital sodium when applied in micromolar concentrations evoked inward Cl- currents in DRG neurons voltage clamped at negative membrane potentials. 3. Diazepam (10 microM) and pentobarbital (10 microM) upmodulated the GABA current by approximately 149 and 168%, respectively. 4. The GABA currents in human DRG cells were unaffected by the classical GABA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuclline (100 microM). In contrast, the GABA responses evoked in adult rat DRG cells cultured in an identical manner were inhibited by both antagonists. The glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (100 microM) did not alter GABA currents in human DRG cells. 5. Human DRG cells did not respond to glycine (10-100 microM) or taurine (10-100 microM). The GABAB agonist baclofen had no effect on the holding current when patch pipettes were filled with 130 mM KCl. The GABAB antagonists saclofen applied either alone or with GABA was without effect. 6. The differences between the GABA receptors described here and GABA receptors in other species may reflect the presence of receptor subunits unique to human DRG cells.
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ABSTRACT: Taurine (Tau) is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system. Whether the neurotransmission of the central auditory system is regulated or modulated by Tau is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of Tau-activated currents in acutely dissociated neurons of the rat inferior colliculus (IC) using whole cell patch clamp recordings. At a holding potential of -60 mV and under a condition of chloride equilibrium potential near 0 mV, Tau activated an inward current and its half-maximal activation concentration was equal to 0.37 mM. The measured reversal potential of Tau-activated currents was close to theoretical chloride equilibrium potential. The currents evoked by Tau at both low (1 mM) and high (10 mM) concentrations were almost completely inhibited by strychnine, a glycine receptor antagonist. The Tau-activated current, however, was not affected by bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. Tau at increased concentrations progressively reduced the current response to subsequent glycine application. At saturated concentrations, Tau-activated current and glycine-activated current were mutually cross-desensitized by each other. These findings indicate that Tau activates glycine receptors in neurons of the rat IC and thus may have a functional role in regulating or modulating the neurotransmission of the central auditory system in mammals.Brain Research 10/2004; 1021(2):232-40. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.07.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether adult human dorsal root ganglion neurons can be isolated and maintained in long-term tissue culture, where they would extend processes. Dorsal root ganglia were removed from adult human organ donors within 2 hours of clamping the aorta. They were then treated with enzymes for one hour, triturated to dissociate the neurons and their satellite cells, and the individual neurons were then plated in tissue culture dishes in medium containing serum. Isolated adult human dorsal root ganglion neurons survive in vitro for more than 2 1/2 months, in the absence of exogenously supplied neurotrophins. where they remain electrically excitable and extend processes, Isolated adult human dorsal root ganglion neurons survive in culture for more than 2 1/2 months, extend processes, and remain electrically excitable, without exogenous neurotrophins. These results suggest that, adult human sensory neurons do not require exogenous neurotrophins for survival and process outgrowth, or that sufficient factors were provided by the small number of satellite cells in the cultures. In addition, the neurons survive well in spite of an initial period of up to 14 hours of hypoxia, between the time the aorta was clamped and when the plated neurons were placed in an incubator with the appropriate O2/CO2 environment.Neurosurgery 03/1998; 42(3):681-5; discussion 685-6. DOI:10.1097/00006123-199803000-00054 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The highly disagreeable sensation of pain results from an extraordinarily complex and interactive series of mechanisms integrated at all levels of the neuroaxis, from the periphery, via the dorsal horn to higher cerebral structures. Pain is usually elicited by the activation of specific nociceptors ('nociceptive pain'). However, it may also result from injury to sensory fibres, or from damage to the CNS itself ('neuropathic pain'). Although acute and subchronic, nociceptive pain fulfils a warning role, chronic and/or severe nociceptive and neuropathic pain is maladaptive. Recent years have seen a progressive unravelling of the neuroanatomical circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of pain. In addition to familiar inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and bradykinin, potentially-important, pronociceptive roles have been proposed for a variety of 'exotic' species, including protons, ATP, cytokines, neurotrophins (growth factors) and nitric oxide. Further, both in the periphery and in the CNS, non-neuronal glial and immunecompetent cells have been shown to play a modulatory role in the response to inflammation and injury, and in processes modifying nociception. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, wherein the primary processing of nociceptive information occurs, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are activated by glutamate released from nocisponsive afferent fibres. Their activation plays a key role in the induction of neuronal sensitization, a process underlying prolonged painful states. In addition, upon peripheral nerve injury, a reduction of inhibitory interneurone tone in the dorsal horn exacerbates sensitized states and further enhance nociception. As concerns the transfer of nociceptive information to the brain, several pathways other than the classical spinothalamic tract are of importance: for example, the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway. In discussing the roles of supraspinal structures in pain sensation, differences between its 'discriminative-sensory' and 'affective-cognitive' dimensions should be emphasized. The purpose of the present article is to provide a global account of mechanisms involved in the induction of pain. Particular attention is focused on cellular aspects and on the consequences of peripheral nerve injury. In the first part of the review, neuronal pathways for the transmission of nociceptive information from peripheral nerve terminals to the dorsal horn, and therefrom to higher centres, are outlined. This neuronal framework is then exploited for a consideration of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal mechanisms involved in the induction of pain by stimulation of peripheral nociceptors, by peripheral nerve injury and by damage to the CNS itself. Finally, a hypothesis is forwarded that neurotrophins may play an important role in central, adaptive mechanisms modulating nociception. An improved understanding of the origins of pain should facilitate the development of novel strategies for its more effective treatment.Progress in Neurobiology 02/1999; 57(1):1-164. DOI:10.1016/S0301-0082(98)00048-3 · 10.30 Impact Factor