Selenium bioaccumulation and hazards in a fish community affected by coal fly ash effluent.
ABSTRACT Bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in the fish community of Pigeon River/Pigeon Lake, which receives inputs of Se from a coal fly ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se to fish, wildlife, and humans. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving seepage and effluents from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than those in fish from upstream, where Se concentrations were near background concentrations. Se concentrations differed among fish species, and interspecific variation was greatest at the most contaminated locations. Differences in Se bioaccumulation among fish species were not consistently associated with differences in trophic status. Although Se concentrations in northern pike were consistently less than those in likely prey species, large yellow perch contained Se concentrations as great as those in spottail shiners, their likely prey. Se bioaccumulation may have been influenced by differences in habitat preferences, as limnetic species generally contained greater Se concentrations than benthic species. Se concentrations in fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake did not exceed lowest observable adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of fish species, but exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals. Human consumption of moderate quantities of fish from the areas studied should not result in excessive Se intake.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg and Se were investigated in Sarasota Bay, FL, USA, in order to characterize the Hg exposure risks to wild bottlenose dolphins in the Bay. The concentrations of total mercury (THg), monomethylmercury (MMHg) and total selenium (TSe) were monitored in the bay, the latter which might reduce mercury (Hg) toxicity. The foodweb structure and dolphin's trophic level specific consumption rates were evaluated using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N). Regressions developed for Hg biomagnification in the foodchain were: log(10) C(THg) (ng g(-1) ) = 0.27×δ(15) N (‰) - 0.42, R(2) =0.87 for THg and log(10) C(MMHg) (ng g(-1) ) = 0.33×δ(15) N (‰) - 1.0, R(2) =0.93 for MMHg. Unlike Hg, nearly constant TSe concentrations were observed at 248±179 ng g(-1) in the food web, and the TSe to THg molar ratio was predicted by log(10) (C(TSe) /C(THg) ) = -0.10×δ(15) N (‰) + 2.8, R(2) =0.60. The THg uptake rates of Sarasota bottlenose dolphins are estimated to vary between 2.1 and 4.9 µg kg(-1) d(-1) , however, the estimated TSe uptake rates (15.1 µg kg(-1) d(-1) ) were higher than those for THg, and the Hg exposure risks of the Sarasota Bay resident bottlenose dolphins are considered to be low. Approaches employed in the present study can be extended to other environments to characterize Hg contamination in aquatic systems and Hg exposure risks in top predators. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2013 SETAC.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 02/2013; · 2.62 Impact Factor
- Biophysical Journal 01/2011; 100(3). · 3.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial variations of 20 elements (Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S, K, Cu, Cl, V, Se, Br, As, Zn, and Pb) in PM(2.5) (particle matters≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) in the coastal city group in the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) region, China during spring 2011. The average PM(2.5) mass concentration at 13 sites was 77.0μg/m(3) and the elemental fraction accounted for about 10-20%. Multivariate analyses (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) and a correlation matrix were used to identify the sources of elements in PM(2.5). The results revealed that the elements originated mainly from traffic emissions, coal combustion, pyrometallurgical processes, and crustal sources. Spatially, the concentrations of elements were generally higher in several rapidly growing locations, and the enrichment factors (EFs) for most elements were much higher at the northern sites than those at the southern sites, suggesting that the air quality in the northern part of the study area was strongly affected by anthropogenic activity. Backward wind trajectory analysis during the sampling period indicated that the concentrations of elements in PM(2.5) in the WTS region were greatly impacted by dust particles transported from Northern China in spring.Science of The Total Environment 11/2012; 442C:77-85. · 3.26 Impact Factor