Copper(II) complexes of the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial ciprofloxacin. Synthesis, X-ray structural characterization, and potentiometric study.
ABSTRACT Reaction of the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial ciprofloxacin with copper(II) nitrate in the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine resulted in the isolation of the complex [Cu(cip)(bipy) (Cl)0.7(NO3)0.3] (NO3).2H2O. Reaction of an aqueous solution of ciprofloxacin.HCl and NaCl with CuCl2 at pH 5.0 resulted in the isolation of [Cu(cip)2]Cl2.11H2O. The complex [Cu(cip) (bipy)(Cl)0.7(NO3)0.3] (NO3).2H2O crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, with a = 13.955(8), b = 14.280(8), c = 14.192(6) A, beta = 93.10(4) degrees, Z = 4 with R = 0.046. The selective broadening of resonances in the 13C NMR spectrum of ciprofloxacin by the addition of Cu2+(aq) was employed to probe metal ion binding sites in the ligand. The protonation constants of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and the formation constants with copper(II), were determined by potentiometric titrations at 25 degrees C. The additions of ciprofloxacin to metal to form ML and ML2 complexes exhibit stepwise formation constants of log K1 6.2(1) and log K2 11.1(3), respectively.
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ABSTRACT: Ciprofloxacin (CIP) can be strongly adsorbed by ferric oxides, but some influencing factors, such as multivalent cations and soil organic matter, have not been evaluated extensively. In this study, the interaction between CIP and four divalent metals (Ca, Cd, Cu, and Pb) was investigated using potentiometric titration and the results indicated that CIP can bind to the divalent metals in the following affinity order: Cu(II) > Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Ca(II). The effects of metals and fulvic acid (FA) on the adsorption behavior of CIP onto goethite surfaces were also examined using batch experiments. It was found that metal cations enhanced the CIP retention on goethite surfaces in the same order as the affinity order with CIP, indicating that metals likely increased CIP retention through cation bridging. FA was found to promote CIP sorption rather than compete with it, and the coexistence of FA and Cu(II) in the system exhibited an addictive effect with CIP sorption, indicating that they might influence the sorption separately under the studied loading condition. Taken together, our results suggested that the coexistence of divalent cations or soil organic matter will enhance CIP sorption on goethite surfaces, hence reducing its mobility and bioavailability in the environment.Environmental science and pollution research international. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The speciation of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions in the presence of the fluoroquinolones (FQs) moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, in human blood plasma was studied under physiological conditions by computer simulation. The speciation was calculated using an updated model of human blood plasma including over 6,000 species with the aid of the program Hyss2009. The identity and stability of metal-FQ complexes were determined by potentiometric (310 K, 0.15 mol/L NaCl), spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, ESI-MS and 1H-NMR measurements. In the case of Cu2+ ion the concentration of main low molecular weight (LMW) plasma complex (Cu(Cis)His) is very slightly influenced by all examined FQs. FQs show much higher influence on main plasma Ni2+ and Zn2+ complexes: (Ni(His)2 and Zn(Cys)Cit, respectively. Levofloxacin exhibits the highest influence on the fraction of the main nickel complex, Ni(His)2, even at a concentration level of 3 × 10-5 mol/L. The same effect is seen on the main zinc complex, Zn(Cys)Cit. Calculated plasma mobilizing indexes indicate that ciprofloxacin possesses the highest mobilizing power from plasma proteins, toward copper ion, while levofloxacin is the most influential on nickel and zinc ions. The results obtained indicate that the drugs studied are safe in relation to mobilization of essential metal ions under physiological conditions. The observed effects were explained in terms of competitive equilibrium reactions between the FQs and the main LMW complexes of the metal ions.Molecules 08/2014; 19(8):12194-223. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Microbial resistance to antibiotics is one of the biggest public health threats of the modern world. Antibiotic resistance is an area of much clinical relevance and therefore research that has the potential to identify agents that may circumvent it or treat resistant infections is paramount. Solution behavior of various fluoroquinolone (FQ) complexes with copper(II) in the presence and absence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) was studied in aqueous solution, by potentiometry and/or spectrophotometry, and are herein described. The results obtained showed that under physiological conditions (micromolar concentration range and pH 7.4) only copper(II):FQ:phen ternary complexes are stable. Hence, these complexes were synthesized and characterized by means of UV-visible and IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and single-crystal X-Ray diffraction. In these complexes, the FQ acts as a bidentate ligand that coordinates the metal cation through the carbonyl and carboxyl oxygen atoms and phen coordinates through two N-atoms forming the equatorial plane of a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The fifth position of the penta-coordinated Cu(II) centre is generally occupied axially by an oxygen atom from a water molecule or from a nitrate ion. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations of the complexes and comparison with free FQ in various E. coli strains indicate that the Cu-complexes are as efficient antimicrobials as the free antibiotic. Moreover, results strongly suggest that the cell intake route of both species is different supporting, therefore, the complexes’ suitability as candidates for further biological testing in FQ-resistant microorganisms.Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 05/2014; In press. · 3.27 Impact Factor