Familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 variants elevate Abeta1-42/1-40 ratio in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 genes cosegregate with the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees. We now document that the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio in the conditioned media of independent N2a cell lines expressing three FAD-linked PS1 variants is uniformly elevated relative to cells expressing similar levels of wild-type PS1. Similarly, the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio is elevated in the brains of young transgenic animals coexpressing a chimeric amyloid precursor protein (APP) and an FAD-linked PS1 variant compared with brains of transgenic mice expressing APP alone or transgenic mice coexpressing wild-type human PS1 and APP. These studies provide compelling support for the view that one mechanism by which these mutant PS1 cause AD is by increasing the extracellular concentration of Abeta peptides terminating at 42(43), species that foster Abeta deposition.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of soybean extracts were investigated in senescence-accelerated (SAMP10) mice, a mouse model of brain senescence with cognitive dysfunction. Mature soybeans are usually yellow. However, the green soybean retains green color after being ripened. Cognitive functions were significantly better-preserved in aged mice fed green soybean than age-matched control mice with or without yellow soybean feeding. Molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effect of green soybean on brain functions were examined through transcriptome analysis of SAMP10 hippocampus. The high expression of Ptgds was significantly associated with green soybean diet, which encodes lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase, a putative endogenous amyloid β(Αβ)-chaperone. In consonance, Aplp1 expression was significantly reduced, a member of amyloid precursor proteins. Furthermore, the amount of Aβ 40 and 42 was reduced in the insoluble fraction of cerebral cortex. These results suggest that the intake of green soybean ameliorates cognitive dysfunction of aged mice through the reduction of Aβ accumulation.Journal of Functional Foods 04/2015; 14. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2015.02.011 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degeneration of the brain, inducing memory decline, inability in learning, and behavioral alterations, resulting progressively in a marked deterioration of all mental activities and eventually a vegetative state. The main causative factor, however, is still unclear. The implication of amyloid-β, AβPP, tau protein, the selective loss of neurons, the alteration of the synapses, the cytoskeletal changes, and the morphological alterations of the brain capillaries contribute substantially to the pathogenetic profile of the disease, without sufficiently enlightening the initial steps of the pathological procedures. The ultrastructure of the neuronal organelles as well as histochemical studies revealed substantial alterations, primarily concerning mitochondria. In this study, the morphological and morphometric alterations of the Golgi apparatus (GA) are described in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in twenty AD brains, studied with electron microscopy. As it is well established, GA has a very important role to play in many procedures such as glycosylation, sulfation, and proteolysis of protein systems, which are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum of nerve cells and glia. GA may also play a crucial role in protein trafficking and in misfolding of protein aggregates. In addition, the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is closely related with the pathology of GA. In AD cases, described in this study, an obvious fragmentation of the cisternae of GA was observed in the Purkinje cells of the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres. This alteration of GA may be associated with alterations of microtubules, impaired protein trafficking, and dendritic, spinal, and synaptic pathology, since protein trafficking plays an essential role in the three dimensional organization of the dendritic arbor and in the integrity of the synaptic components.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2014; 42. DOI:10.3233/JAD-132660 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased production, oligomerization and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are hallmark pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Expressing familial AD mutations (amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins mutations), the Aβ-pathologies of AD has been recapitulated in animal models of AD. Very few primary cell culture-based models of AD are available and they exhibit very weak Aβ-pathologies compared to what is seen in AD patients and animal models of AD. CNS stem/progenitor cells are present in both embryonic and adult brains. They can be isolated, grown as neurospheres and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It is not yet known whether CNS stem/progenitor cells can support the production of Aβ peptides in culture. In this report, we have established Aβ-pathologies such as production, secretion, oligomerization and aggregation of Aβ peptides utilizing neurosphere cultures to create a new cellular model of AD. These cultures were developed from E15 embryonic brains of transgenic mice carrying the Swedish mutations in humanized mouse APP cDNA and the exon-9 deleted human presenilin 1 cDNA both regulated by mouse prion protein gene (Prnp) promoter. Results demonstrated the expression of transgene transcripts, APPswe protein and its processed products only in transgene positive neurosphere cultures. These cultures generate and secrete both Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides into culture medium at levels comparable to the Aβ load in the brain of AD patients and animal models of AD, and produce pathogenic oligomers of Aβ peptides. The Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in the medium of transgene positive neurosphere cultures is higher than any known cellular models of AD. Conformation dependent immunocytochemistry demonstrated the possible presence of intracellular and extracellular aggregation of Aβ peptides in neurosphere cultures, which are also seen in AD brain and animal models of AD. Collectively, our neurosphere cultures provide robust Aβ-pathologies of AD better than existing cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:161. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-161