"cells. Breast tumour cells in BM and peripheral blood are capable of in vitro clonogenic growth (Ross et al, 1995), and tumour involvement of either autologous BM graft or PBSC collections has been associated with shorter disease-free and overall survival in stage II–III patients subjected to AT (Harbeck et al, 1994; Pedrazzoli et al, 1997; Hurd & Peters, 1995; Vredenburgh et al, 1997); furthermore, an inverse correlation has been suggested to exist between overall survival after AT and the amount of contaminating cancer cells in the BM (Ross et al, 1996). However, in other studies, tumour contamination of PBSC collections in stage IV patients seemed to have no impact on overall survival (Ybanez et al, 1995). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is considerable interest in an autologous transplantation (AT) programme for patients with high-risk breast cancer; however, the issue of the incidence of occult bone marrow (BM) micrometastasis at diagnosis, and the cancer contamination of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections used for haematological rescue, is still debated. The presence of BM micrometastasis was evaluated in bilateral BM biopsies obtained at diagnosis of 33 patients with stage II/IIIA breast cancer using: (i) a 'nested' reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for cytokeratin 19 (K19) mRNA, (ii) histology, and (iii) immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis with a panel of three monoclonal antibodies. The RT-PCR assay only was used to determine contamination of PBSC collections obtained after priming with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). K19 transcripts in one or both BM samples were detected in 48% of patients at diagnosis, with an overall 85% concordance with the results of IHC analysis. On the other hand, 56% of PCR- and IHC-positive BM samples were diagnosed as 'normal' on histological analysis. 57% of patients showed K19 mRNA in at least one PBSC collection; the possibility to have contaminated PBSC collections was significantly higher in patients with K19 positivity in BM at diagnosis. In four patients who had shown K19 positivity in BM and in PBSC collections, immunoselected CD34+ cells used for haematological rescue were K19-negative. There was a trend towards longer relapse free survival (RFS) in patients transplanted with K19-negative PBSC collections as compared to the others. In conclusion, a substantial proportion of patients with high-risk non-metastatic breast cancer present occult BM micrometastasis at diagnosis and also show cancer contamination of PBSC collections used for AT. These might represent a category of patients with poorer prognosis after AT, and possible candidates for more intensive and/or alternative therapeutic regimens, including AT with purged PBSCs.
British Journal of Haematology 01/1999; 103(3):610-7. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2141.1998.01027.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-one high-risk patients with primary stage II/III breast cancer were treated with high-dose chemotherapy comprising etoposide, ifosfamide, carboplatin and epirubicin (VIC-E). Tumor cells of epithelial origin were analyzed using the monoclonal antibodies CK2 (IgG1) and A45-B/B3 (IgG1) against cytokeratin (CK) components in bone marrow (BM) aspirates prior to chemotherapy, and in peripheral blood stem cell transplants (PBSCT). They were separated after the first (21/21 patients) and the second cycle (16/21 patients) of induction chemotherapy with VIP-E (etoposide, ifosfamide, cisplatin, epirubicin). Preliminary results showed CK positive tumor cells in 40% (14/35) of the analyzed transplants. In 7/12 (58.3%) patients, CK positive tumor cells were detectable in BM prior to treatment. Sixteen patients were separated after the 1st and 2nd cycle of VIP-E. PBSCT of 14/16 patients were assessable for presence of CK positive tumor cells. Our preliminary results demonstrate a lower tumor cell contamination of PBSCT separated after the 2nd cycle of induction therapy (14.3%) compared to contamination after the first induction therapy (64.3%). To date, 4/21 patients have experienced a relapse, and three of these patients had tumor cell positive transplants. Due to the small patient number only a trend towards a superior relapse-free survival in the patient group with CK negative transplants can be shown by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 07/1997; 19(12):1223-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1700817 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increase in the number of patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy/autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) for solid tumor malignancies has generated concern about the infusion of tumor cell contamination in the graft. In an effort to study so-called minimal residual disease (MRD) in the HDC/ASCT setting, a variety of assay methods have been used. Although these assays vary in terms of sensitivity and specificity of tumor detection, they are in agreement as to the presence and viability of tumor cells in ASCT grafts. A growing body of evidence indicates that MRD is present in ASCT grafts from neuroblastoma, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer patients. More importantly, several retrospective studies have determined that the infusion of tumor cells with the ASCT graft is strongly associated with post-ASCT relapse. Gene-marking studies have directly demonstrated that infused tumor cells are present at sites of disease relapse. Thus, the issue of tumor contamination of autologous grafts is an area of growing concern. This review article details the current status of MRD in solid tumor malignancies, with emphasis on assay methodology, clinical utility, and clinical relevance in transplantation medicine.
Journal of Hematotherapy 02/1998; 7(1):9-18. DOI:10.1089/scd.1.1998.7.9
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