Exclusion of corticosterone from epithelial mineralocorticoid receptors is insufficient for selectivity of aldosterone action: In vivo binding studies

Baker Medical Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.64). 01/1997; 137(12):5264-8. DOI: 10.1210/en.137.12.5264
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adrenalectomized weanling rats injected with [3H]aldosterone plus excess RU486, with or without a range of doses of nonradioactive aldosterone or corticosterone, show tissue-specific patterns of competition for tracer binding to mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). From detailed dose-response curves, corticosterone in vivo shows approximately 3% the apparent affinity of aldosterone for MR in colon and kidney, approximately 30% for those in the heart, and approximately 300% in the hippocampus. We interpret these data as evidence that 1) relatively low levels of aldosterone cross the blood-brain barrier; and 2) specificity-conferring mechanisms in addition to the exclusion of corticosterone from epithelial MR are required for selective aldosterone action in sodium homeostasis.

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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have established a role for mineralocorticoids in the development of renal fibrosis. Originally, the research focus for mineralocorticoid-induced fibrosis was on the collecting duct, where 'classical' mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) involved with electrolyte transport are present. Epithelial cells in this segment can, under selected circumstances, also respond to MR activation by initiating pro-fibrotic pathways. More recently, 'non-classical' MRs have been described in kidney cells not associated with electrolyte transport, including mesangial cells and podocytes within the glomerulus. Activation of MRs in these cells appears to lead to glomerular sclerosis. Mechanistically, aldosterone induces excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in glomerular cells through activation of NADPH oxidase. In mesangial cells, aldosterone also has pro-apoptotic, mitogenic and pro-fibrogenic effects, all of which potentially promote active remodelling and expansion of the mesangium. Although mitochondrial dysfunction seems to mediate the aldosterone-induced mesangial apoptosis, the ROS dependent epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation is probably responsible for aldosterone-induced mesangial mitosis and proliferation. In podocytes, mitochondrial dysfunction elicited by oxidative stress is an early event associated with aldosterone-induced podocyte injury. Both the p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling and the redox-sensitive glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β pathways are centrally implicated in aldosterone-induced podocyte death. Aldosterone-induced GSK3β over-activity could potentially cause hyperphosphorylation and over-activation of putative GSK3β substrates, including structural components of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, all of which lead to cell injury and death. Clinically, proteinuria significantly decreases when aldosterone inhibitors are included in the treatment of many glomerular diseases further supporting the view that mineralocorticoids are important players in glomerular pathology.
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) and apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) syndrome are both autosomal recessive disorders that result from mutations of specific identified genes for each condition. CF is caused by defects in the Cystic fibrosis trans membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene which encodes for a protein that functions as a chloride channel and regulates the flow of other ions across the apical surface of epithelial cells. AME is due to the deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme (11βHSD2), which is responsible for the peripheral inactivation of cortisol to cortisone. Cortisol excess stimulates the mineralocoritoid receptors (MR) resulting in intense sodium retention, hypokalemia and hypertension. We report on a consanguineous Arab family, in which two sibs inherited both CF and AME. Gene testing for AME revealed previously unreported mutation in the 11βHSD2 gene. This report draws attention to the importance of recognizing the possibility of two recessive disorders in the same child in complex consanguineous families. Moreover, it provides a unique opportunity to highlight the implications of the coexistence of two genetic disorders on patient care and genetic counseling of the family
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac fibrosis is considered to be a crucial factor in the development of heart failure. Blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) attenuated cardiac fibrosis and improved the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure but the ligand for MR and the regulatory mechanism of MR pathway in the diseased heart are unclear. Here, we investigated whether glucocorticoids can promote cardiac fibrosis through MR in oxidative stress and the involvement of elongation factor eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia (ELL), a co-activator of MR, in this pathway.