Correlation between peripapillary atrophy and optic nerve damage in normal-tension glaucoma.
ABSTRACT To investigate the correlation between peripapillary atrophy and visual field defects as well as optic nerve head configurations in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).
Topographic measurements for peripapillary atrophy and optic nerve head using confocal scanning laser tomography and automated static threshold perimetry were performed on 102 eyes of 51 patients with NTG. Peripapillary atrophy was divided into (1) a central zone (zone Beta) with visible, large choroidal vessels and sclera, and (2) a peripheral zone (zone Alpha) with irregular hyper- and hypopigmentation. The area, angular extent around the disc, and radial extent of each zone were measured.
The area and extent of zone Beta increased significantly with increasing visual field defects expressed in terms of mean deviation, corrected pattern standard deviation, central visual field defects within 5 degrees of fixation, and superior hemifield defects (r = 0.3770-0.5291, P < 0.01). The angular extent of zone Beta represented localized field defects better (r = 0.5217, P < 0.001) than diffuse field defects (r = -0.3770, P < 0.01). Zone Beta significantly correlated with optic nerve head topography. Intraindividual right-left-side differences of corrected pattern standard deviation showed the highest correlation with the side differences of zone Beta area (r = 0.6305, P < 0.001). The location of visual field defects correlated significantly with the location of peripapillary atrophy (chi-square = 9.0484, P = 0.011). Zone Alpha was not significantly correlated with visual field defects or optic nerve head configurations (P > 0.05).
Peripapillary atrophy is significantly associated with functional and structural optic nerve damage in NTG.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC) defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA) lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM) (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior), tilt angle (vertical and horizontal), and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal). Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs), disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2%) POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8%) control eyes (P<0.001). Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01) and control eyes (P = 0.02). POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004), longer temporal PPA without BM (P<0.001), and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P<0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01), and transverse diameter (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P<0.001) and vertical tilt angle (P<0.001) were identified as significant. The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high myopia.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115313. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115313 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To explore the association between peripapillary atrophy (PPA) area and conversion from ocular hypertension (OHT) to glaucoma. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study of cases and controls. Participants We included 279 age-matched and follow-up time–matched eyes with OHT that converted to glaucoma and 279 eyes with OHT that did not convert to glaucoma. Methods Initial and last acceptable optic disc photos were analyzed. Disc, α-zone, and β-zone PPA were traced independently by 2 trained readers and their areas were measured with Photoshop. The α-zone and β-zone areas were expressed as a percentage of optic disc area. Main Outcome Measures α-Zone and β-zone PPA size over time. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) demonstrated that readers had good agreement on disc area (ICC = 0.97) and β-zone (ICC = 0.82), but not α-zone (ICC = 0.48). The ß-zone, as a percentage of disc area, increased in size (P < 0.001) in both eyes with incident primary open-angle glaucoma (mean, 10.6%; standard deviation, 22.6%) and matched controls (mean, 10.1%; standard deviation, 33.7) over follow-up (mean, 12.3 years). The increase in size did not differ between cases and controls (P = 0.82). Enlargement of the β-zone was not correlated with follow-up time (P = 0.39). Conclusions The results did not show a difference in size of the β-zone at baseline between eyes that proceed to develop glaucoma and those that do not. Moreover, the β-zone enlarges equally in case and control eyes during follow-up.Ophthalmology 01/2014; 122(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.033 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare differences in retinal arterial and venular caliber (RAC and RVC respectively) between fellow eyes with glaucoma of asymmetric severity. We included subjects with bilateral primary glaucoma that had vertical cup-disc ratios (VCDR) >0.2 between both eyes, or visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) >6.0 decibels (dB) between both eyes. Among 158 subjects, the average RAC in glaucoma eyes was 131.5 ± 17.8 μm vs 141.6 ± 18.8 μm in fellow eyes with mild disease (p < 0.001). RVCs in glaucoma eyes were 201.0 ± 21.4 μm vs 211.7 ± 25.3 μm in fellow eyes with mild disease (p < 0.001). This relationship held in clustered linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, vascular risk factors, visual acuity, axial length, and intraocular pressure, with RVCs narrower in eyes with worse disease vs mild disease. Eyes with worse disease had greater VCDR (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 0.7 ± 0.1, p < 0.001), and worse VF MD (-18.5 ± 8.6 vs -6.6 ± 5.6, p < 0.001). In glaucoma with asymmetric severity between fellow eyes, retinal vascular caliber is less in the eye with more severe disease.