Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ, Barton KA, Taylor AE. One-year prospective follow-up of motor vehicle accident victims. Behav Res Ther 34: 775-786

Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, University at Albany-SUNY 12203, USA.
Behaviour Research and Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.85). 11/1996; 34(10):775-86. DOI: 10.1016/0005-7967(96)00038-1
Source: PubMed


One-hundred and thirty-two victims of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), who sought medical attention as a result of the MVA, were assessed at three points in time: 1-4 months post-MVA, 6 months later, and 12 months later. Of the 48 who met the full criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) initially, half had remitted at least in part by the 6-month follow-up point and two-thirds had remitted by the 1-yr follow-up. Using logistic regression, 3 variables combined to correctly identify 79% of remitters and non-remitters at the 12-month follow-up point: initial scores on the irritability and foreshortened future symptoms of PTSD and the initial degree of vulnerability the subject felt in a motor vehicle after the MVA. Four variables combined to predict 64% of the variance in the degree of post-traumatic stress symptoms at 12 months: presence of alcohol abuse and/or an Axis-II disorder at the time of the initial assessment as well as the total scores on the hyperarousal and on avoidance symptoms of PTSD present at the initial post-MVA assessment.

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    • "In this sample, nearly half of the participants met the criteria for delayed-onset PTSD after 1 year, and most of these had been diagnosed with partial or subsyndromal PTSD at 3 months. Current data based on these and other studies indicate that the delayed onset of PTSD occurs in 5–6% of MVA samples (Blanchard et al. 1996; Ehlers et al. 1998; Bryant and Harvey 2002), although we must note again that the sampling techniques may affect these estimates since many of these studies either follow people who present to hospitals post-injury or who are part of treatment-seeking samples. Nevertheless, the data reviewed above suggest that, rather than simply appearing in full later, the natural course of delayed-onset PTSD appears to result from subclinical post-traumatic stress symptoms that, instead of resolving (as appears to be the case for most people), increase and intensify in some individuals, such that the criteria for full PTSD are met later. "

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    • "Australia 355 9 months Minor & severe PCL (DSM-IV [63]) 29 Blanchard [72] USA 132 1 year Sought medical attention CAPS (DSM-IV [25]) 14 Koren [73] Israel 102 1 year Hospitalized, mild to moderate SCID (DSM-III-R [43]) 26 Green [74] "
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychological consequences for adult road traffic crash (RTC) survivors and can have serious and long-lasting consequences for recovery if left untreated. Prevalence rates of PTSD following a RTC vary from 6% to 45% (based on 51 prevalence estimates across 35 studies). Explanations for this wide variance are explored. A systematic review of published studies found 49 papers (44 unique studies) investigating predictors of later PTSD in RTC survivors. Consistent predictors of PTSD include rumination about the trauma, perceived threat to life, a lack of social support, higher Acute Stress Disorder symptom severity, persistent physical problems, previous emotional problems, previous anxiety disorder and involvement in litigation/compensation. Moderate predictors of PTSD are discussed, as well as factors, which consistently do not predict PTSD in RTC survivors. The results inform future models of post-RTC traumatic stress aetiology.
    Injury 08/2013; 44(11). DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2013.07.011 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "The possible range of scores is 17–65. Test–retest reliability at 2–3 days has been reported at .96 (Weathers et al., 1993) and the overall diagnostic efficiency has been found to be acceptably high at .90 (Blanchard, Hickling, et al., 1996; Blanchard, Jones-Alexander, Buckley, & Forneris, 1996). In our study, the scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's a = .89). "

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