Osteoporosis following heart transplantation.

Instituto de Investigaciones Metabólicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Transplantation Proceedings (Impact Factor: 0.98). 01/1997; 28(6):3321-4.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Bone loss and osteoporotic fractures are common in cardiac transplant recipients. To compare two prophylactic medical regimens after heart transplantation, 26 consecutive heart transplant recipients were randomized to receive either continuous oral calcitriol (0.5 microg/day) combined with nasal salmon calcitonin (200 U/day) for the first 3 months (group A) or intermittent intravenous pamidronate (0.5 mg/kg body weight) every third month (group B). Bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical indices of bone turnover were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after transplantation. The mean pretransplant BMD, measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was significantly lower in the patients compared with age-matched healthy controls. During the first year of treatment, rates of bone loss at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were slightly but significantly slower in the patients treated with pamidronate, but there was no longer a significant difference between the two groups after 18 months of heart transplantation. Irrespective of the mode of osteoporosis prevention, osteocalcin levels increased whereas urinary deoxypyridinoline decreased after transplantation, and significant bone loss was observed in both treatment groups. We found no relationship between initial BMD, markers of bone turnover, cumulative glucocorticoid dose, or cyclosporine levels and the rate of bone loss after cardiac transplantation. In summary, we found that the rapid and severe bone loss following heart transplantation could be attenuated by two preventive measures, pamidronate or calcitriol with calcitonin.
    Calcified Tissue International 09/2000; 67(2):116-21. DOI:10.1007/s00223001126 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and related fractures are a major complication after organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency and predictors of osteoporotic fractures after cardiac or liver transplantation. 235 consecutive patients who had a cardiac transplant (n=105; 88 men, 17 women) or a liver transplant (130; 75 men, 55 women) were followed. Vertebral fractures were assessed by a standardised analysis of spinal radiographs before and annually after transplantation. Clinical and non-vertebral fracture data were noted from hospital records. In the first and second years after transplantation, the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who had at least one vertebral fracture was slightly higher in the cardiac group (first year 21%, second year 27%) than in the liver group (first year 14%, second year 21%). In the third and fourth years, one third of patients from both groups had had one or more vertebral fractures. Non-vertebral fractures occurred in nine patients (7%) after liver transplantation and avascular necrosis of the hip head in three patients (3%) after cardiac transplantation. In both groups, no dose-dependent effect of immunosuppressive therapy on fracture development could be identified. Independent predictors assessed by multivariate analysis were age (hazard ratio [95% CI] increase of 5 years, 1.71 [1.1-2.7]) and lumbar bone-mineral density (decrease of 1 SD t score, 1.97 [1.2-3.2]) in cardiac transplantation patients, and vertebral fractures before transplantation (6.07 [1.7-21.7]) in the liver group. The high frequency of osteoporotic fractures in the 2 years after transplantation and the limitations of reliable fracture-risk predictions, show the need to investigate preventive therapies.
    The Lancet 03/2001; 357(9253):342-7. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03641-2 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an antiresorptive cytokine and a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis and activity. Since OPG is downregulated by glucocorticoids and cyclosporine A in vitro we examined whether immunosuppressive therapy would play a role in the development of transplantation osteoporosis. We enrolled 57 cardiac transplant recipients (median time since transplantation, 3.2 years (1.1-11.5 years)) in this cross-sectional study. Standardized spinal X-rays as well as hip bone density measurements were performed in all patients. Serum OPG was determined using a commercially available ELISA. Vertebral fractures were present in 56% of the patients. Bone densities of all femoral neck subregions were correlated to serum OPG concentrations (r values between 0.40 and 0.48, all P < 0.005). Multiple regression analysis revealed OPG levels to be independently correlated to femoral neck Z scores (r = 0.49, P = 0.002). After adjustment for age, BMI, neck Z score, renal function, and months since transplantation, serum OPG was the only significant predictor of prevalent vertebral fractures (P = 0.001). In a separate 6-month prospective study of 14 heart transplant recipients receiving calcium and vitamin D serum OPG levels fell by 41% (P = 0.0004) after 3 months and 47% (P = 0.0001) after 6 months following cardiac transplantation. Bone loss at the lumbar spine and femoral neck after 6 months was correlated to the decrease in serum OPG at 6 months (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001, and r = 0.60, P = 0.02, respectively) as well as 3 months after cardiac transplantation (r = 0.65, P = 0.01, and r = 0.69, P = 0.006, respectively). Serum OPG alone accounted for 67% of the variance of lumbar spine bone density changes over the first 6 months posttransplantation. We conclude that serum OPG levels decline consistently in all patients following initiation of immunosuppressive therapy and are independently correlated with changes in bone density. We hypothesize that OPG plays a major role in the development of transplantation osteoporosis.
    Bone 01/2003; 32(1):96-106. DOI:10.1016/S8756-3282(02)00926-2 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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