Anatomy of the extensor tendons to the index finger
ABSTRACT An anatomic study was performed to better delineate the extensor tendons of the index finger. Seventy-two cadaver hands were dissected. Classically, a single slip of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and a single slip of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) are said to run to the index finger. The EIP is said to be ulnar to the EDC at the level of the metacarpal head. In dissections in this study, the classic description was noted in 58 of the hands. Ten hands had a double slip of the EIP. Two hands had a double slip of the EDC running to the index. Two hands had a single slip of the EIP either volar or radial to the EDC at the level of the metacarpal head. Thirteen hands (19%) showed anatomic variants of the EIP and EDC tendons at the level of the metacarpal head, differing from the classic description. Additionally, two hands showed aberrant tendons. A knowledge of these variants when performing tendon repair or EIP transfer is necessary.
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- "It was first described by Wood (1864). Since then, many studies confirm the presence of this muscle with a frequency from 0.5 to 4 % (De Vilhena 1933; Cauldwell et al. 1943; Godwin and Ellis 1992; Yoshida 1995; Gonzalez et al. 1996). The extensor indicis radialis (EIR) is also a supernumerary muscle. "
ABSTRACT: Anatomical variations of the fingers extensor tendons are not uncommon and have been described by several authors. Participation of intertendinous band of fascia in this kind of variation can change muscle functionality. However, this element is scarcely described in the literature. In this case report, we describe the finding of an accessory tendon located between the extensor digitorum communis muscle tendon, destined for the index finger, and the extensor pollicis longus tendon. In an anatomical analysis, we observed a connection between the radial portion of the accessory tendon and the ulnar portion of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by intertendinous fascia. This finding corresponds anatomically to the supernumerary muscle denominated extensor indicis radialis, but due to the fascial connections observed with the extensor pollicis longus, this muscle would behave functionally as a supernumerary muscle denominated extensor pollicis et indicis communis. This report suggests that participation of fascia in muscular variation in this anatomical segment is essential to establish the correct morpho-functional denomination of muscular variants.12/2012; 88(3). DOI:10.1007/s12565-012-0164-8
International Journal of Morphology 09/2012; 30(3):1071-1073. DOI:10.4067/S0717-95022012000300050 · 0.20 Impact Factor
- "Bingold (1964) said that the extensor indicis brevis may arise by a narrow aponeurosis from the wrist and insert by a slender tendon into the ulnar side of the extensor hood of the index. The extensor indicis muscle is widely utilized in surgeries of tendon transfer designed to restore a variety of finger movements (Gonzalez et al., Kitano et al., 1996; Batra et al.). It is utilized in reference to dysfunctions caused by functional loss of the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis muscles (Batra et al.), and extensor pollicis longus (Noorda et al.,1994). "
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ABSTRACT: Variations of the extensor indicis muscle were examined in 164 hands from 86 Japanese cadavers. Anomalous cases exhibiting supernumerary muscles or tendons were found in 22 hands. These variations were classified into four types: type 1, an additional tendon slip from the extensor indicis tendon; type 2, an extensor indicis radialis or extensor pollicis et indicis accessorius; type 3, an extensor medii proprius with or without extensor medii brevis; and type 4, an extensor indicis radialis and extensor medii proprius. The extensor medii proprius was the most common variation, followed by extensor indicis radialis. There were no clear differences in incidence of variations between men and women or between right and left hands. When variations were bilateral, both sides were identical or similar in type.The Journal of Hand Surgery British & European Volume 11/1999; 24(5):575-8. DOI:10.1054/jhsb.1999.0239 · 0.04 Impact Factor