Anatomy of the extensor tendons to the index finger.
ABSTRACT An anatomic study was performed to better delineate the extensor tendons of the index finger. Seventy-two cadaver hands were dissected. Classically, a single slip of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and a single slip of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) are said to run to the index finger. The EIP is said to be ulnar to the EDC at the level of the metacarpal head. In dissections in this study, the classic description was noted in 58 of the hands. Ten hands had a double slip of the EIP. Two hands had a double slip of the EDC running to the index. Two hands had a single slip of the EIP either volar or radial to the EDC at the level of the metacarpal head. Thirteen hands (19%) showed anatomic variants of the EIP and EDC tendons at the level of the metacarpal head, differing from the classic description. Additionally, two hands showed aberrant tendons. A knowledge of these variants when performing tendon repair or EIP transfer is necessary.
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ABSTRACT: REVIEW The Prevalence of the Extensor Digitorum Communis Tendon and its Insertion Variants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis KAISSAR YAMMINE * Foot and Hand Clinic, Center for Evidence-Based Sport and Orthopedic Research, Emirates Hospital, Dubai, UAE The tendons of the Extensor Digitorum Communis (EDC) are frequently injured in hand trauma. Dislocation and spontaneous rupture can also occur during the course of wrist osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The EDC exhibits many variations including splitting of its individual slips to the medial four fingers or their absence. The aim of this systematic review is to assemble evidence about the prevalence of the EDC and its variants on the dorsum of the hand. Twenty- four cadaveric studies met the inclusion criteria, providing data from a total of 2,005 hands. Meta-analysis yielded the following results: (a) for EDC-II (Index), the pooled prevalence estimates (PPEs) were 99.8, 98, 1.8, and 0.2% for the total, single, double, and triple slips, respectively; (b) for EDC-III (Mid- dle), the PPEs were 100, 67.7, 24.2, 6, and 0.42% for the total, single, double, triple, and quadruple slips, respectively; (c) for EDC-IV (Ring), the PPEs were 100, 58.6, 29.1, 7.1, and 1.3% for the total, single, double, triple, and quadru- ple slips, respectively; (d) for EDC-V (Little), the PPEs were 63.2, 58.5, 10.4, 0.94, and 25% for the total, single, double, triple, and common 4th–5th slips, respectively. There were no significant differences in relation to hand side. Many EDC slip variants demonstrated some interaction with ancestry. A sound knowledge of EDC variants and their prevalences is paramount for assessing and treating hand injuries and disorders.Clinical Anatomy 06/2014; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Variations of the extensor group of muscles in the superior extremity are commonly reported. We are reporting a case of bilateral complete absence of extensor indices muscle. Variation of the extensor indices is not uncommon showing cases with two, three and four tendons going to index fingers have been reported by many workers. The cases with bilateral absence of this muscle are barely reported, incidence usually ranging from 0 to 1 %. In a single study a high frequency of 4% has also been reported.01/2014; ISSN:976-9633.
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ABSTRACT: The tendon of the extensor indicis (EI) is frequently used to restore the loss of function in other digits. However, it shows many variations which include splitting of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) into two or three distal slips, attachment to fingers other than the index such as the extensor medii proprius (EMP), attachment onto the index and the third finger such as the extensor indicis et medii communis, or attachment to both the index and the thumb such as the extensor pollicis et indicis (EPI). This systematic review gathers the available data on the prevalence of EI tendon and its variation in the hand. Twenty-nine cadaveric studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 3858 hands. Meta-analysis results yielded an overall pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) of EI of 96.5 % and PPEs of 92.6, 7.2 and 0.3 % for the single-, double- and triple-slip EIP, respectively. The single-slip EIP is frequently inserted on the ulnar side of the extensor digitorum communis of the index (EDC-index) in 98.3 %. The double-slip EIP is located on the ulnar side of the EDC-index in 53.5 %, on its radial side in 17 % and on both sides in 28.7 %. Indian populations showed the highest rate of single-slip EIP and the lowest rate of double-slip EIP when compared to Japanese, Europeans and North Americans. The pooled prevalence of EMP, EMIC and EPI were 3.7, 1.6 and 0.75 %, respectively. Knowledge of the variants of the EI tendon and their prevalence should help surgeons in correctly choosing the tendon to transfer in hand surgery.Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy 08/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor