A triphasic analysis of negative osmotic flows through charged hydrated soft tissues.
ABSTRACT Osmotic flow and ion transport in a one-dimensional steady diffusion process through charged hydrated soft tissues such as articular cartilage were analysed using the triphasic theory (Lai et al., 1991, J. biomech. Engng 113, 245-258). It was found that solvent would flow from the high NaCl concentration side to the low concentration side (i.e. negative osmosis) when the fixed charge density within the tissue (or membrane) separating the two electrolyte (NaCl) solutions was lower than a critical value. The condition for negative osmosis was derived based on a linear version of the triphasic theory. Distributions of ion concentration and strain field within the tissue were calculated numerically. Quantitative results of osmotic flow rates (ordinary and negative osmosis), ion flux and electric potential across the tissue during this diffusion process suggest that the negative osmosis phenomenon is due to the friction between ions and water since they could flow through the tissues at different rates and different directions.
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ABSTRACT: 1. When a watery solution is separated from pure water by a collodion membrane, the initial rate of diffusion of water into the solution is influenced in an entirely different way by solutions of electrolytes and of non-electrolytes. Solutions of non-electrolytes, e.g. sugars, influence the initial rate of diffusion of water through the membrane approximately in direct proportion to their concentration, and this. influence begins to show itself under the conditions of our experiments when the concentration of the sugar solution is above M/64 or M/32. We call this effect of the concentration of the solute on the initial rate of diffusion of water into the solution the gas pressure effect. 2. Solutions of electrolytes show the gas pressure effect upon the initial rate of diffusion also, but it commences at a somewhat higher concentration than M/64; namely, at M/16 or more (according to the nature of the electrolyte). 3. Solutions of electrolytes of a lower concentration than M/16 or M/8 have a specific influence on the initial rate of diffusion of water through a collodion membrane from pure solvent into solution which is not found in the case of the solutions of non-electrolytes and which is due to the fact that the particles of water diffuse in this case through the membrane in an electrified condition, the sign of the charge depending upon the nature of the electrolyte in solution, according to two rules given in a preceding paper. 4. In these lower concentrations the curves representing the influence of the concentration of the electrolyte on the initial rate of diffusion of water into the solution rise at first steeply with an increase in the concentration, until a maximum is reached at a concentration of M/256 or above. A further increase in concentration causes a drop-in the curve and this drop increases with a further increase of concentration until that concentration of the solute is reached in which the gas pressure effect begins to prevail; i.e., above M/16. Within a range of concentrations between M/256 and M/16 or more (according to the nature of the electrolyte) we notice the reverse of what we should expect on the basis of van't Hoff's law; namely, that the attraction of a solution of an electrolyte for water diminishes with an increase in concentration. 5. We wish to make no definite assumption concerning the origin of the electrification of water and concerning the mechanism whereby ions influence the rate of diffusion of water particles through collodion membranes from pure solvent to solution. It will facilitate, however, the presentation of our results if it be permitted to present them in terms of attraction and repulsion of the charged particles of water by the ions. With this reservation we may say that in the lowest concentrations attraction of the electrified water particles by the ions with the opposite charge prevails over the repulsion of the electrified water particles by the ions with the same sign of charge as that of the water; while beyond a certain critical concentration the repelling action of the ion with the same sign of charge as that of the water particles upon the latter increases more rapidly with increasing concentration of the solute than the attractive action of the ion with the opposite charge. 6. It is shown that negative osmosis, i.e. the diminution of the volume of the solution of acids and of alkalies when separated by collodion membranes from pure water, occurs in the same range of concentrations in which the drop in the curves of neutral salts occurs, and that it is due to the same cause; namely, the repulsion of the electrified particles of water by the ion with the same sign of charge as that of the water. This conclusion is supported by the fact that negative osmosis becomes pronounced when the ion with the same sign of charge as that of the electrified particles of water carries more than one charge.The Journal of General Physiology 11/1919; 2(2):173-200. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. It had been shown in previous papers that when a salt solution is separated from pure water by a collodion membrane, water diffuses through the membrane as if it were positively charged and as if it were attracted by the anion of the salt in solution and repelled by the cation with a force increasing with the valency. In this paper, measurements of the P.D. across the membrane (E) are given, showing that when an electrical effect is added to the purely osmotic effect of the salt solution in the transport of water from the side of pure water to the solution, the latter possesses a considerable negative charge which increases with increasing valency of the anion of the salt and diminishes with increasing valency of the cation. It is also shown that a similar valency effect exists in the diffusion potentials between salt solutions and pure water without the interposition of a membrane. 2. This makes it probable that the driving force for the electrical transport of water from the side of pure water into solution is primarily a diffusion potential. 3. It is shown that the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution affects the transport curves and the diffusion potentials in a similar way. 4. It is shown, however, that the diffusion potential without interposition of the membrane differs in a definite sense from the P.D. across the membrane and that therefore the P.D. across the membrane (E) is a modified diffusion potential. 5. Measurements of the P.D. between collodion particles and aqueous solutions (epsilon) were made by the method of cataphoresis, which prove that water in contact with collodion particles free from protein practically always assumes a positive charge (except in the presence of salts with trivalent and probably tetravalent cations of a sufficiently high concentration). 6. It is shown that an electrical transport of water from the side of water into the solution is always superposed upon the osmotic transport when the sign of charge of the solution in the potential across the membrane (E) is opposite to that of the water in the P.D. between collodion particle and water (epsilon); supporting the theoretical deductions made by Bartell. 7. It is shown that the product of the P.D. across the membrane (E) into the cataphoretic P.D. between collodion particles and aqueous solution (epsilon) accounts in general semiquantitatively for that part of the transport of water into the solution which is due to the electrical forces responsible for anomalous osmosis.The Journal of General Physiology 09/1922; 5(1):89-107. · 4.73 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 04/2002; 73(10).